Print ISSN: 2309-5199

Online ISSN: 2616-6933

Issue 2,

Issue 2


Study the efficiencyof Antioxidants produced from fermented koji by Aspergillus niger on some oils

Ali Khudhair Jabir Al-Rikabi; Abdol-Hafiz Al-Dubon; Hadeel Wadi Mohammed

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 1-20

The antioxidative properties of EAERK were studied and were found as follows:
 
the antioxidant activity of EAERK were varied to retard the peroxidation of linoleic acid.The scavenging effect for free radicals of EAERK was increased with concentrations increasing and the scavenging effects of BHT was higher than EAERK.The reducing power of EAERK was increased with the concentrations increasing being lower than both BHT and α-tocopherol , and the chelating ability to ferrous ion of EAERK was lower than EDTA-2Na .The total phenolic compounds of ethyl acetate extracted from rice koji fermented by A. niger S1 were 223.8 µg gallic acid / mg extract. The antioxidant stability of EAERK were studied toward many factors  and were recorded as follows: EAERK was stable at neutral conditions and was unstable under both acidic and alkaline conditions.EAERK have good thermal stability characteristics and tolerated heating at 185ْ C for 2 h.
 
EAERK showed synergistic effects with α-tocopherol and citric acid , it has been found that the synergistic effects of EAERK with α-tocopherol were higher in the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation system than that of citric acid.The inhibitory effect of EAERK to retard olive oil and fish oil oxidation was increased by increasing their concentrations

The effect of planting date in blooming season on three potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars in Sulaymaniyah location

Z. Mohamad; Y. K . Challab; M. H. Obaid

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 21-29

 The study was set up during blooming season 2010 at agricultural research center (Canytanka) in directory of agricultural research in Sulaymaniyah.
 
    The effect of transplanting three potato cultivars Draga,Provento and Sante with two blooding season (10/3)and (25/3) on vegetative growth and the yield was the aim of this study. Factorial Randomized Completely Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with four replicates was used and data subjected to analysis of variance in addition to least  significant differences (L.S.D.) with  P=0.05 for comparison between treatment means.The results could be summarized as fallow
 
 Provento cultivar was significantly affected on plant high and number of tubers and gave (73.43 cm/plant and 12.00 tuber/plant) respectively while there were no significant differences in number of shoot ,stem diameter and number of leaves per plant parameters .
 
      Moreover the results revealed that the 25/3 bloming season was affected significantly on stem diameter , number of tubers as compare to plant height , number of shoot and total yield parameters .

Induction of some antioxidant enzymes of two bread wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum l.) and two durum wheat (Triticum durum l.) under zinc and bicarbonate stress.

Abbas Ali Hussein; Ismail K . Al-Samray

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 30-52

To study effect of Zn,HCO3 Stress in wheat genotype , experiment were conducted in  stats hydroponics technique, in greenhouse of Soil and water sciences department –Agriculture college/Baghdad university intention study effect of Zn and three levels of bicarbonate stress(0,2000,4000 µM.L-1) ,from KHCO3 silt . Four varieties were uses two from Bread Wheat (Iba99 and Sham6),and two from durum wheat(Sin AL-Jamal and Jndolh). Experiment setup using Complete Randomized Design (CRD).  Results of this Study showed varieties exposure to Zn stress redound in development and emersion Zn deficiency. Zn deficiency differences between wheat varieties .varieties exposure to Zn,HCO3(2000 and 4000 µM.L-1)stress exacerbate Zn deficiency phenomenon .Accompany Zn deficiency emersion a significant decreased in shoots and roots fresh weight ,especially under Zn ,HCO3 stress assembly.Iba99 from bread wheat given highest values in shoots and roots fresh weight compared with Sham6 varieties .Simi behavior showed in architectures roots .Also Iba99 given highest values in total chlorophyll concentration compared with other varieties. Zinc concentration a significant decreased when varieties grown under Zn, HCO3 stress, with superior Iba99 in active Zinc concentration (84.15 and 73.20 mg.Kg-1)at highest HCO3 stress (4000 µM.L-1)under Zn deficient or efficient respectively. Jndolh from durum wheat was superior in all characterizes compared with Sin AL-Jamal. All varieties given high assemble of organic acid (Malic, Citric and Oxalic) in Roots. This is clear signaler on varieties were effected to  Zn and HCO3 stress. Antioxidant enzymes activity (SOD,POD,CAT) were given clear signaler on effected of wheat varieties under Zn,HCO3 stress .This  is deductive on scavenging to ROS eventual from Zn,HCO3 stress.Iba99 given highest values in SOD and CAT(324.4 and 516.5 u.mg p.-1),when  growth under Zn deficient and highest HCO3 stress (4000 µM.L-1) respectively. Also Iba99 given highest values in POD enzyme active (65.37 u A.gm-1) under Zn deficient and highest HCO3 stress(4000 µM.L-1).Jndolh was superior in all antioxidant enzyme(SOD,POD and CAT)compared with Sin AL-Jamal .    This study suggested capability to use antioxidant enzymes activity as important criterion to separation efficiencies varieties which tolerance Zn, HCO3 stress ,and give early signaler to varieties separation to stress tolerance. 

Moisture content and agricultural implement weight effect on soil compaction with depth

H .K . Ebreesum

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 53-75

 Afield experiment was conducted to determine the compaction resulted in clay loam soil in terms of , bulk density , penetration resistance  and saturated hydraulic conductivity  at soil depths, (0-10, 10-20 , and 20-30 cm) under the effect of gravimatric moisture contents, (23.05 , 20.57 and 18.57%) and three agricultural implements defferent with type , equipping and total weight (tare + input) , hanging fertilizer spreader (300) kg , fogger (1290) kg and transport wagon (3600) kg . The last two implements as a towed with one axle . Each of above implements represent a compaction load. Compaction treatments were corried out using a wheeled tractor of 2750 kg , run once with each of implement behind it at all moisture contents , in addition to non tracked treatment (control) . The towed implement wheels were positioned to follow tractor wheels . All determination were taken beneath the track center line .
 
       The results show that a great compaction occurred within 0-30cm soil depth , due to transport wagon at 23.05% moisture content ,bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity values were 1.56 Mg.m-3 and 4.04 mm.h-1  respectively. Exception control treatment, a lower compaction at the same depth above occurred under influence off fertilizer spreader at 18.57% water content, the values of the two soil properties mentioned above (1.39 Mg . m-3  and  36.36 mm.h-1 respectively).
 
     The soil within 20-30cm depth was affected significantly by compaction of all implements and moisture content treatments exception fogger and fertilizer spreader at 18.57% moisture content treatments .A higher penetration resistance(2127kPa) was found at soil within 0-30cm depth under influence of  transport wagon at 18.57%  moisture content.

Effect of spraying Salicylic acid and foliar Nutrients on Vegetative Characteristics of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) Transplants cv.Tuffahy

Farouk Faraj Jumaa; Mohamed Ali zainaldeen

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 76-93

This study was conducted at pomology orchard of the Department of Horticulture, college of Agriculture, University of Baghdad, during growing seasons of ع0is study was conducted in pomology orchard, Department , College of Agriculture , University of Bagdad, during saeasons 2012 and 2013, to examine the effect of foliar spray of Salicylic acid, Foliartal nutrient and humic acid on  the growth of ber transplants C.V Tuffahy. Salicylic acid was sprayed at (0 , 50 , 100 and 200 mg.L-1) while Foliartal and Humic acid were sprayed at (2.5 , 5 ml.L-1) and (0.75 , 1.5 ml.L-1)respectively. A factorial experiment in (R.C.B.D)with three replications was adopted. Results could be summarized as follows at :




Foliar spray with Salicylic acid especially 200 mg.L-1 showed significantly increased growth traits with (67.87 , 124.03 %) , (80.70 , 102.38 %) , (59.44 , 71.11%) , (13.24 ,3.95%) , (22.01 , 29.10%) for the characters : plant high, Leaves area , chlorophyll , leaf dry matter and branches contect of carbohydrate for both seasons respectivety

 

Foliar spray of Humin acid at 1.5 mg.L-1 caused significantly in creased in plant high , leaves area , chlorophyll and the percentage of dry mater and carbohydrate with percents reached (52.09,68.36%), (84.71,107.35 %) , (49.17 , 52.73 %) , (9.67 , 5.88 %) , (15.94 , 17.19 %) for both seasons respectively.

 

Foliartal nutrient at 5ml.L-1 concentration significantly increased all vegetative characters at different perecents which varied between the lowest level of (9.22 , 3.12%) for dry matter and the highest leval of (50.23 , 50.18 %) for plant high.




 




The interaction between salicylic acid at 200 mg.L-1 and humic acid at 1.5 ml.L-1 gave the highest values for most vegetative characteristics.

The influence of abscisic acid and the physical status of media on the production and qualitative characters of microtubers produced from two potato cultivars grown by in vitro culture.

Lamiya K.J. Al-Amery; Hussam S.M. Khierallah

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 94-110

This experiment was conducted in the tissue culture laboratory, Horticulture Department, Agriculture College, University of Baghdad, to investigate the influences of abscsic acid (ABA) and the physical status of growing media for two potato cultivars on the production and qualitative characters of microtubers. Different ABA concentration of 0.0 , 50 , 100 , 150 and 200 mg .l-1 was added to the two growing media the first one was liquid ( without agar ) while the other type the semi-solid media ( 7g.l-1 agar ) for two potato cultivars , Desiree and Revira . Adding ABA at the rate of 0.5 mg . l-1 significantly increased the number, weight , diameter of the microtubers in addition the reducing sugar content and the percentage of protein , while adding 0.25 mg.l-1ABA significantly increased the percentage of starch and this percentage was decresed by increasing the ABA concentration . The liquid growing media was significantly superior in the quantitative and qualitative microtubers characters as compared with semi-solid grown media especially when 0.5 mg.l-1 ABA was used. The Revira cultivar was superior then Desiree in this studied characters except the percentage of starch which was not influenced by the cultivar or the physical status of the growing. The percentage of starch was increased in Desiree cultivar when 0.25 mg.l-1   ABA was added.

Effect of the of poultry manure addition and foliar applicatio of 4TOP fertilizer on some physical and chemical properties of soil , growth and yield of millet.

Hamied Ajeel Habeeb

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 111-123

This experiment was conducted in the tissue culture laboratory, Horticulture Department, Agriculture College, University of Baghdad, to investigate the influences of abscsic acid (ABA) and the physical status of growing media for two potato cultivars on the production and qualitative characters of microtubers. Different ABA concentration of 0.0 , 50 , 100 , 150 and 200 mg .l-1 was added to the two growing media the first one was liquid ( without agar ) while the other type the semi-solid media ( 7g.l-1 agar ) for two potato cultivars , Desiree and Revira . Adding ABA at the rate of 0.5 mg . l-1 significantly increased the number, weight , diameter of the microtubers in addition the reducing sugar content and the percentage of protein , while adding 0.25 mg.l-1ABA significantly increased the percentage of starch and this percentage was decresed by increasing the ABA concentration . The liquid growing media was significantly superior in the quantitative and qualitative microtubers characters as compared with semi-solid grown media especially when 0.5 mg.l-1 ABA was used. The Revira cultivar was superior then Desiree in this studied characters except the percentage of starch which was not influenced by the cultivar or the physical status of the growing. The percentage of starch was increased in Desiree cultivar when 0.25 mg.l-1   ABA was added.

Satisfaction level of sheep and cattle farmeres towards the agricultural extension service in holy karbala province

Amar Abd Alhassan Ali Al -Darb; Hussain K. AL-Taiy

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 124-137

The research aims to identify the level of satisfaction for sheep and cows breeders extension service provided to them was prepared to be a measure of satisfaction of paragraph 36 were distributed among eight axes 1. Goals guidance interest of the breeders and contact with them 2. Topics Extension Service 3. Method of service extension 4. The timing of the extension service 5. Based Service Extension 6. Follow-up 7. The results achieved from the service extension 8stwp of  better service extension. Collected data from a random sample of educators participating in extension activities and reached the amount of 98 (72 breeders sheep and 26 breeders cows) mediated questionnaire prepared for this purpose included five satisfaction phrases (strongly satisfied, satisfied, hesitant, not satisfied, not strongly satisfied) and in a manner personal interview. The research found that 67% of surveyed breeders described service Satisfaction  level guidance provided to them that he is weak, and in terms of the level of satisfaction with the subject  of the extension service provided to them it appeared that 69% -65% of the researchers were their level of satisfaction for each of these subject weak. The researcher recommended to the importance of the formation of the organization of specialized guide for livestock, and the preparation and implementation of a project or program guide specialist with a non-control  and evaluation following up, and the importance of thinking in the administration to work indicative. With the need to set up a database on the activity of animal breeding and staff

Economic Analysis of the Consequences of Government Intervention in Maize Market in Iraq by using (PAM) Policy Analysis Matrix (Producer Sample in the year 2011)

Wigdan Kameis; Alkareem Hayef; Abdul jaleel Raheem; Jasim Al–Khafaji

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 138-150

This research care for determining the effects of government intervention in maize market for producers sample in the year 2011 by using Policy analysis matrix (PAM) approach .This usage will help us to determine protection coefficients and comparative advantage coefficients, in order to know the effect of government intervention in Maize price. The value of nominal protection coefficient (NPC) and effective protection coefficient (EPC) were (1.5) and (2.2)  indicates that there was a positive subsidy given to producers. The profitability coefficient value for Maize was (4.74) indicated that government encourage efficient technology and the producers make high profit in that year . The value of domestic resource cost was (0.031) positive and less than one   that means there was comparative advantage in Maize production for producers in the sample. And so the value of Producer Subsidy Ratio was (52.2 %) that mean there was a high subsidy from government to them. The value of  Private Cost Coefficient  Ratio was less than one about (0.306) that mean investment in Maize production more than cost so the investors had profit in that year.

Response of some varieties of bread wheat (Triticum astivim L.) and durum (Triticum durum L.) to salt stress

Abbas Ali Hussein

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 151-164

 Experiment was conducted in Petri dishes and in the field (in the Baghdad / Abu Ghraib in the soil of calcareous classified within the range of soils Great Typic Torrifluvent) in order to study the effect of salinity stress( 3, 6 and 9 ds / m )in germination and dry weight at seedling and   booting stages for two genotypes of bread wheat and two genotypes of durum wheat. Moreover the leaves and roots content of Na and K was estimated. use randomized complete block design in a factorial experiment with three replications .
 
   The results showed the superiority  Iraq genotypes among the varieties  and sin al-jamal from durum genotypes in the percentage of germination , also caused increased levels of  salinity stress to reduce germination in all varieties under study , while the cultivar gave Iraq varieties of bread genotype and sin al-jamal from durum genotypes lowest rate of decline . It also contained the upper leaves of these two categories on the lower concentration of sodium and the highest concentration of potassium , while their leaves contained the lower roots and the highest concentration of sodium, with the highest concentration of potassium in the lower leaves compared with other varieties . It also gave the two types higher value of the dry weight of shoots in the two phases of seedling and booting stages. The experiment results show the success of the product was Iraq varieties and sin al-jamal of durum varieties to tolerance  the salinity stress compared to other varieties studied through possess a mechanism to exclude sodium in the lower parts and keep focus High potassium in different parts of the plant to maintain the ionic balance in the plant , which is likely to be considered efficient varieties to tolerance salinity stress .

Effect of foliar spray with the nutrient elements and organic compound on the qualitative characters of spinach Spinacea oleracea L

K. A. A.i Al-Jebour; H. R.M .AL-Ansari

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 165-181

This study was carried out in the vegetable farm , Department of Horticulture , College of Agriculture , University of Baghdad , during the growing season 2012-2013 .to investigate the effects of two factors on spinach(spinaceaoleraceaL ) . The first is the foliar spray of mixture of     ( Mg + Fe + Zn ) at three concentration : A0 ( 0 : 0 : 0 ) , A1 (2.5 : 1.25 : 0.5 ) , A2 ( 5 : 2.5 : 1 ) g.L-1 in the form of sulfates of each element . The second factor ( B ) included foliar spray of four organic compounds : Salicylic acid at 50 mg.L-1( B1) , Ascorbic acid at 250 ppm ( B2) , Humic acid at 0.75 ml.L-1 ( B3) , sea weed extract ( ANE ) at 1ml.L-1( B4)  and the control ( foliar spray with water ) . The foliar spray with ANE and humic acid significantly increased the percentage of the sugar to 14.71% and 14.64% respectively . Humic acid gave the highest percentage of protein 2.20% . The level A2 gave the highest sugar percentage 14.33% and protein percentage of 2.28% .The interaction of A2 B3 gave the highest sugar percentage 15.35% and protein 2.50% . The foliar spray with organic compound reduced the nitrate percentage to 0.24% in humic acid ANE , the oxalate to 76.93 mg.100mg-1(FW) in ANE . The nitrate percentage was increased as the concentration of mineral used increased and it was 0.31% of A2 level and the oxalate was increased to 87.21 mg.100g-1 ( F.W ) in the level A2 . The intraction A 0B3significantly decreased the nitrate percentage to 0.21% as compared with the highest percentage 0.37% in A 2B0 , while  A 0B 4 significantly decreased oxalate to 74.82 mg.100g-1 (F.W)  as compared with the highest content 92.27 mg.100g-1(F.W)  in A 2B0 . Flowering set in plants led to reduction the percentage of sugar while the percentage of  nitrate was  increased as well as the oxlate content increased segnificantlly  in leaves to 98.57 mg.100g-1(F.w) .