Print ISSN: 2309-5199

Online ISSN: 2616-6933

Issue 1,

Issue 1

Isolate and diagnose fungi producing Mycotoxins accompaniment for apples imported and local and test the efficiency of a number of integrated control programs to control it

Z Abd AL-Satar Jabbar; Sami Abd AL-R.AL-Jamili; R K.AL-Jenabi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 14-29

This study was conducted to isolate and diagnose fungi associated with apples imported and domestic, and test the effectiveness of a number of integrated pest management programs in control.            
Results showed a solitary existence fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicilliumfollowing and Fusarium and Rhizopus, and was Aspergillus niger fungus is most visible in the apples it reached 81.9% increase in imported fruits and 51.1% in local fruits.               
And the detected the chemical using a technique plates Alkromatokravaa thin layer (TLC) Thin Layer Chromatgraphy that eleven isolates of the fungus A .niger of between fourteen isolation (88%) producing toxin aflatoxin B1, as shown by the results of chemical analysis that sixteen isolation of the fungus A. niger total of 20 isolates (80%) were able to secrete toxin ochratoxin A.                         
The results showed solitary existence two isolate of bacteria have the ability to contrast fungus A.niger and given the isolation of bacteria Bp4 Bacillus polymyxa isolated from apples highest percentage inhibition of the fungus as it stood at 88% and the results showed also that the integrated control program which consists of isolation Bp4 material with sodium bicarbonate and treatment heat is the best in terms of the capacity to combat the rot caused by the fungus A.niger, as the percentage of infection of the fungus A.niger 8.33% and a difference of significantly for increase in the control treatment (fruits treatment vaccine A. niger fungus only), amounting to 41.66% while the percentage of infection of injury fruits and applied the same program by 58% at a time when the percentage of infection in the treatment of comparison 91.66. 

Biological control by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Azotobacter chroococcum bacteria to Fusarium chlamydosporum caused yellowing and stiffness of the detached leaves of date palm growth summit

E.KH Hassun; R.K Abd AL-Mohsen.AL-Jonabi; A.Abd al-K AL-Yasari

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 30-42

The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the pathogen cause yellowing and stiffness of the detached leaves of date palm  growth summit.Results of  isolation from roots  showed presence of the fungal Fusarium chlamydosporum  in palm trees of Babylon and Karbala provinces , this is the first record of the fungus F.chlamydosporum on palm trees in Iraq. The initial detection of pathogenic isolates of  F.chlamydosporum  using red radish seeds showed  that all isolates tested were  pathogenic and germination Percentage ranged between 12 – 27% , and the results show the effect of isolate of F.chlamydosporum (F.c3) in the severity of injury of palm seedlings  75 days old under the lathe house conditions,the isolate(F.c3) gave a significantly rise in the severity of the injury reached to 93.75% compared to comparison which was 0.0%,the treatment of addition bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and bacteria Azotobacter chroococcumfrom concentration 5 x 107 , 6.5 x 106 (colonial unit / Ml) respectively, achieved protection of palm seedlings from injury with the isolate (F.c3) under lathe house conditions, resulted in the treatment of bacteria P.fluorescens and A.chroococcum to a reduction in the severity of the injury reached to 6.25% and 18.75% respectively compared to the treatment (pathogenic fungal only) that  the severity of  injury  reach to 93.75%.

Taxonomical key of the Iraqi genera for the wild bees in the family Megachilidae depending on mouthparts

Prof. Dr. Ali Shalan AL- Araji; Manar Ahamed Abass

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 43-52

A taxonomical key was prepared that could be used to separate the Iraqi genera
of the wild bees in the family of the leaf cutting bees Megachilidae – Hymenoptera.
The prepared key depended manily on the most important characters of the
mouthparts of the adult males and females of the bees. The most important characters
of the mouthparts were illustrated photographically. The Iraqi genera of
Megachilidae included were five previously recorded in Iraqi which are
(Megachile ,Chalicodoma ,Coelioxys ,Anthidium , Anthidiellum ) and two genera
recorded in the present study which are (Osmia , Icteranthidium ) .

Evaluation of efficacy of Salicylic acid ,and the chemofungicide Beltanol and the biological fungus Trichoderma harzianum in controlling the fungus Rhizoctonia solani isolated from Broadbean plant roots infected with the root rot disease

Olaa H. jaefar

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 64-75

This study was conducted to see the effect of each of the pesticide chemical Beltanol factor induction Salicylic acid and fungus resistance biogenic Trichoderma harzianum on the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctoniasolani and its impact on the severity of injury root plants beans and some growth indicators of dry weight and the length of shoot and root,The results of laboratory tests showed that the fungus Tharzianum led to the inhibition of the growth of pathogenic fungus R.solani the middle PDA as the results showed that the use of the pesticide Beltanol concentration of 1 ml to prevent the growth of pathogenic fungus Rsolani entirely on the middle either wooden canopy, the results showed after 30 days of agriculture that the treatment of pesticide Beltanol achieved the highest rate of decrease in the severity of the injury Blaftr pathogen R.solani as 25%, followed by treatment using Salicylic acid which rate the severity of the injury which 31.25% Then the treatment of fungus Tharzianum that the severity of the injury rate was 43.75% compared to the treatment of pathogenic fungus R.solani alone, which amounted to the severity of injury, where 93.75% of all transactions that achieve significant reduction in the severity of the injury fungus R.solani has reflected positively on the growth indicators studied on bean plants achieved all transactions lifted morale in the rate of dry weight and the length of the two totals shoot and root as it occupied the treatment of pesticide Beltanol ranked first in raising growth indicators as total dry weight of grouped shoot and root where 1.05 and 0.72 g, respectively, and achieved the highest lengths of grouped shoot and root, amounting to 11.5 and 9.75 cm, respectively, compared to the treatment of pathogenic fungus R.solani alone and followed the treatment pesticide use Beltanol treatment Salicylic acid treatment and then add fungus 

The effect of combination between the Cinnamomum extract and the Bacillus subtilis against Rhizoctonia solani fungus that causes root rot disease Capsicum

Ebtisam M. Hussain

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 76-91

     In this study the test combination activity between Bacillus subtilis and watery cinnamomum extract is concentration different in the growth inhibition of the Rhizoctonia solani caused the root rot disease of capsicumplant and compared if the uses bacteria and extract both alone . It showed the results of laboratory the combination treatments between Bacillussubtilis and watery extract of cinnamomum the concentration (10 , 20 ,30) mg / ml has the highest percentage in the inhibition of the growth Rhizoctonia solani which has( 76.66 , 82.21 , 89.71 ) % respectively after three and six days compared to the control treatment which has to the percentage of inhibition of the pathogen fungus 0.00% . As uses of bacteria treatment alone has led to the growth inhibition of the pathogenic fungus colony in both time periods and a difference significant for the control which has the percentage of the fungus inhibition 74.71% and 64.71% after three days and six days respectively . Either uses of cinnamomum extract alone of the concentration of ( 20, 30) mg / ml has a highly significant difference compared to the treatment control as percentage of pathogenic fungus inhibition in both the two time periods ( 40.55 , 54,71) % respectively after three days and and ( 13.88 , 46.10 ) % respectively after six days . The uses of cinnamomum extract treatment alone concentration of 10 mg / ml the percentage of fungus inhibition 31.91% after three days and asignificant difference for the control treatment , but treatment is encouraging for the growth of the pathogenic fungus colony Rhizoctonia solani during the second time period as the percentage of inhibition fungus 0.00% after six days without any significant differences from the control treatment  . We conclude from the results of this study the use of Bacillus subtilis and watery cinnamomum extract as combination considered method is very important in achieving the best results in control on the Rhizoctonia solani fungus causes the root rot capsicum .

The effect of the extract alkaloid compounds for residue of the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum in the roles of others amounting to insect dates moth Ephestia cautella (Walker)

Z. M.A.Kahoo; H.M KH.AL- Rabiei

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 92-103

Series experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the crude  extract of alkaloid compounds of residue of the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum in the mortality of  Ephestia cautella.
The highest mortality  rate of  the larval stages was 90% of when the extract used in at 10% concentration after 48 hours, compared with 26.56,26.56,17.70, 17.70,17.70%  in the larval stage 1st ,2nd ,3rd ,4th ,5th , respectively, of the control treatment.  It was found a linear correlation between the mortality rates with increasing the concentration of the extracts.

Effect of IBA concentration on Rooting and Seedling growth of Fig ( Ficus carica L.)varieties (waziri and Aswad Diyala)

Harith Mahmood Azeez Altememy

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 104-112

The experiment was conducted in the lath house, College of Agriculture / University of  Karbala for the period from mid-February until July 2013. The aim is to study the effect of different concentrations of the IBA on the percentage of rooted cuttings, vegetative and root characteristics of fig varieties; Waziri and Aswad Diyala. Four IBA concentrations were used (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/L ). Randomized complete Block Design  (R.C.B.D)  was used with three replicates and 10 cuttings for each replicates .
The results showed that Waziri gave asignificant increase in (the rooting percentage, shoots length and dry weight of vegetative and roots) over the Aswad Diyala .
The result also showed that cuttings treated with IBA at a concentration of (3000 mg/L) increased, significantly the rooting percentage, shoots length, number and length of  roots and dry weight of vegetative and roots) comparing with other concentrations. The interaction of both varieties with IBA treatments showed a significant difference in (the rooting percentage Shoots length, number and length of roots, dry weight of vegetative and roots) over the control treatment, but the cultivar waziri treated with IBA at a concentration of ( 3000 mg. /L) gave the highest results.

control on fungal rot tomato and cucumber fruits using the best concentration of aloe vera extract

K.H AI-Bahadoli; M.M Diwan

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 122-135

This study included isolation and diagnose the fungi causing damage and rot of cucumber and tomato fruits after harvest .And determine the best concentration of of aloe vera extract that inhibits fungal growth and sporulation .The ability of this extract in protecting tomato and cucumbers fruits under cold storage conditions .
    Alternaria alternata , Drechslera australiensis , Fusarium pseudoanthophilum and Pythium aphanidermatum were isolation from tomato and cucumbers fruits showing  symptoms . The fungus  F. pseudoanthophilum was recorded for the first time in Iraq as causer of tomato and cucumber fruits rot . Aspergillus niger , A. oryzae , A. terreus and Penicillium chrysogenum fungi were isolated from fruits surfaces by dilution method .
       Results revealed that all concentrations of  Aloe vera extract inhibited tested fungi and the concentrate of 20% was the most effective where the inhibition after  72 hours were 82.53. The results extract was capable to prevent the growth of  P. aphanidermatum completely .The extract inhibited  the germination of A. alternata 4 and Penicillium chrsogenum spores by 70.62 and 67.61% respectively .The inhibition  percentage  of  isolates spores 1, 2 and 3 of A. alternata were 54.7 , 64.46 and 60. 57%, respectively, and for  D.australiensis spores were 49.04% .
          Results of applied experiments revealed the ability to use  Aloe vera  extraction  in protecting tomatoes and cucumber fruits from  infection with rot after harvest under  cold condition . The average growth of A.alternata , D.australiensis  F.pseudoanthophilum and P.aphanidermatum after after 20 days Aloe vera  extracted treatment gave 0.09,0.07 0.12 and 0.16 cm respectively  compared with the control which gave 0.12 , 0.12 ,0.17 and 0.22 cm respectively . After 25 days the growth was 0.17 , 0.15 , 0.25 and 0.35 cm respectively compared to the control treatment which gave  0.20 , 0.15 , 0.31 and 0.49 cm, respectively .

Estimation of heterosis and combining ability by half diallel crossing in maize .

Nawfle adnan sppri abd- gapar

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 136-146

  Six inbred lines of corn (Zea mays L.) were studied planted (S6 , HS , AGR183 , ZP607  , ZM19R and ZM43R( to attain hybridization program of (Half – Diallel Cross). The research included 21 genotypes (6 parents + 15 hybrids) grown in fields of farmers field in AL- sofia area in east of Ramadi city in AL –anbar  for spring season 2013  by using RCBD design with three replications , to study heterosis and combining ability for characters (number of days to female flowering , number of plant ears, number of row grains, weight of 300 grains and individual plant yield .
     The research showed that there were significantly differences at for all characters, also showed that the hybrids (ZM43R×AGR183) , (AGR183×HS) showed desired heterosis for most characters studied as compared with mid parents . Two parents (HS and AGR183) showed general combining ability effects,while the hybrids (S6×HS) ‘ (ZP607×ZM43R) ، (AGR183×ZM43R) and  (HS×AGR183( were showed high specific combining ability effects in most of the studied characters .

Effect of source and level of foliar zinc application on its concentration in grain , growth and Rice yield variety alyasmin ( Oryza Sativa L. ) .

R. A. H. Jassim

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 147-156

A field experiment was conducted at Al – Mishkhab rice research station in      Al – Najaf Governorate during summer season 2013 to study the effects of sources and levels of  Zinc foliar applications on Zinc concentration in grain  and growth of rice (Oriza sativa L.) Yasmin variety . Treatments included two sources of Zinc ( ZnSo4.7H2O ( 23 % ZN ) and  Zn- EDTA ( 14 % Zn ) ) with ( 40 , 80 , 120) mg.zn.L-1 for foliar application . further to control treatment ( without  Zinc ) . RCBD was conducted with three replicates . The following results were obtained:

There is no significant effect for Zinc sources on all studied parameters.


The levels of Zinc application had significant effect on most studied parameters with second level (80 mg. zn. L-1) having the most effect giving highest grain yield (5688 kg.h-1), the higher straw yield ( 6488 kg .h-1 ) and the higher zinc concentration in grain ( 35 mg


The level 40 mg Zn.L-1 gave the highest height of plant( 89.8 cm) and highest number of spike ( 397 Spike.m-2).


The interaction between sources & levels of Zinc application affected significantly in grain yield (6110 kg.h-1 ), number of spike ( 413 spike .m-2 ), straw yield ( 7263 kg .h-1 ) and zinc concentration in grain ( 36 mg grain).

Effect of alone and a synergistic addition garlic powder with probiotic to the ration on some blood and immunological parameters of broilers

Bashar noori kadhim AL-Ghazali

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 157-164

  The current experiment aimed to study  the effect of garlic powder with probiotic or both of them on some blood parameters of ( Ross) broilers. this study was Conducted in the field of poultry department of animal production technology in technical college/ al musiab in Babylon province on 10/03/2014 until 15/04/2014, A total number of 96 one day old broiler chicks were used, those chicks were allocated randomly on 4 equal treatments, each treatment included two replicates, of 12 chicks each replicate, Blood samples were collected from chicks at the 3rd and 5th week of age to evaluate some physiological and immunological traits.  Result illustrated a significant elevation (P<0.05) of total protein and antibody titers against Newcastle disease for the garlic powder treatment and the compatibility between them (garlic powder plus probiotic) in comparison with the control treatment in addition to a significant elevation (P<0.05) of  Newcastle and Gumboro disease antibody titers to that of the probiotic treatment and compatibility between them in comparison with the control treatment meanwhile the addition of garlic powder with the probiotic or both of them achieved a high significant reduction (P<0.01) of total cholesterol and triglycerides, moreover this feed addition did not achieve a significant difference in the packed cell volume, haemoglobin and glucose as compared with control treatment.   

Influence of kind and level of fertilizers on some of growth and yield recipes of Eggplant in plastic houses under drip-irrigation system

Sabah Lateef Assi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2015, Volume 2, Issue 1, Pages 165-175

Field experiment was conducted during 2012 \ 2013growing season at al-musayab project to investigate the influence of kind and amount of fertilizers on growth  and yield of eggplant in plastic houses under drip-irrigation system . under factorial experiment in RCBD with (3 ) replications , there were eight treatments resulted from four kinds of fertilizers (chemical fertilizer , poultry manure , sheep manure and cow manure) and two levels of organic fertilizers 25ton.h-1 and 50 Ton .h-1 , with two levels of chemical fertilizers, first was (100 kg N .h-1 , 5o kg P .h-1 and 40 kg K .h-1 ) and the second was (200 kg N .h-1 , 100 kg P. h-1 and 80 kg K . h-1) .
     The results showed that there was significant  interaction effect between kind  and fertilizer level on total yield , plant height , number of  branches , leave and soil contents from N, P and K .
     The treatment of poultry manure at fertilizer's level of 50 ton .h-1  caused significant increase , It was given the higher yield 18.68 kg.m-2and a higher rang for all characteristics above as compared with all treatments .