Print ISSN: 2309-5199

Online ISSN: 2616-6933

Issue 1,

Issue 1


The physiological study of the Effect of Foliar Spray of Humic Acid and Compound Fertilizers N.P.K on Some Chemical Characteristics of Date Palm cultivar Maktoom in the city of Karbala.

Zeinab A. M. Altememe; Alaa A Ali; Muna H. Shareef; Abeer Q. Kadhim

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

This experiment was conducted in accordance with randomized complete design (C . R . D ) in AL- Hosseinieh date palm Station of Karbala during the season of  2015 to study the effect of foliar spray with three levels of Humic acid (0 and 9 and 18 g.L-1) and three levels of  compound fertilizers (0, 4 and 8 ml.L-1) on  date Palm ، cultivar Maktoom. The off shoots were sprayed at three interval in tenth day of march , may and they were also sprayed with 0.2 %  urea one day before each spraying . Results were collected in mid-December. Results showed that Humic acid at 18ml.L-1 increased the chlorophyll a compared to Control , also Humic acid addition was superior increasing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and total protein in the leaves .
 
  The compound fertilizers (N.P.K) in concentration (8 g.L-1) significantly increased the chlorophyll a and b and  concentrations  nitrogen , phosphorus , potassium and total protein in the leaves .
 
The interactions between concentration 18 ml.L-1 of Humic acid and 8 g.L-1of compound fertilizers (  N.P.K ) significantly increased the chlorophyll a and b and  concentrations  nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and total protein in the leaves on all other interaction .

Response of some vegetative growth of genetic types of sum flowers and time spry with Humic acid

HAMDIYAH ALI ATIYAH; SABIHA HASSON KADHIM

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 14-26

An experiment was conducted through spring season (15/3) and autumn season (15/7) to investigate the response of two sun flower genotypes ( Zahrat al Iraq and Aqmar) to addition of Humic acid with 500 cm3/100 L water, the experiment under split block design in RCBD with three replications, the plant was harvesting at 20/5 and 15/10 to spring and autumn respectively, the result show: Significant differences between plant genotype in two lag , the Zahrat al Iraq genotype give higher value in plant height , disk diameter , foliar area , stem diameter , and number of leaves , while no difference at chlorofyle leaf content between genotype, the addition of humic acid at two sprays increase significantly ( 182.1,131.57 ) cm , (21.65 , 18.69)cm  , ( 0.629 , 0.496 ) m2 , (2.33 , 2.00) cm , ( % 45.25, % 45.09) , (28.35, 28.76 ) all parameter above for both the seasons respectively.

In Vitro Seed Culture as Simple and Rapid Method for Screening Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars Tolerance to Water Stress

Hasanein S. Oleiwi; Muslim A. Abdulhussein; Maher H. Salman

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 27-39

This study was performed to study the Effects of in vitro water stress on some growth characters of  two rice( Amber33 and Mishkhab2) cultivars. A mature seeds of two rice cultivars( Amber 33 and Mishkhab2) were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with with 3 different Polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) concentrations (0, 1,2and 3%) for 14 and 21 days to study the effect of water stress on seedling length , root length , fresh weight and dry weight . Results showed that addition of PEG resulted in decreasing means of all studied characters with the increasing of PEG concentration in MS medium. A significant difference recorded between cultivars; Amber33 produced the highest seedling length, fresh and dry weight, root number and root length compared with Mishkhab2.
 

Effects of Urea application and Cytokinin Spray , on some charac-teristics of Grape Transplant .( Vitis vinifera L.) .

Hadi K. Hussien; Loay M. Hamza

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 40-47

This study was conducted at Horticulture Department – College of Agriculture AL-Qasim Green University of during the period 27/3/2016  –   15/7/2016  to study the effect Urea application at (0 , 2, 4 , 8. Gseedling-1) and Spray of Cytokinin ( 0 , 25 ,50 , 100 mg. L-1) on some characteristics of grape  Transplants. The results indicated that adding Urea and alone or in combination  treatment  caused a significant increasing in  the rate of length of branches Total chlorophyll content in leaves and number of  the plants branches . while the character of N content in leaves was not significant in Cytokinin spray treatment and character of root length the treatment of 4 Urea gm .Seedling-1 was superior as compared with  others with 12.60 cm  .The treatment of Urea   8  g.seedling-1 and  Cytokinin at the level 100 mg.L-1  show the highest rate of those characteristics compared to control treatment .

The effect of irrigation Treatments and salicylic acid in some vegetative traits and physiological of wheat crop

Ali N. Farhood; Raisan A.AL- Zobiday; Salam A. Khate; Firas D.Abed; Ayad W. Abbas

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 48-61

  A field experiment was conducted during the winter season ( 2014 -2015) at one of the farmers field in Annana region / Hilla / Babil (Latitude N and Longitude East) , The experiment was arranged as a split-split plot in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replication.Treatments of  irrigation (Full irrigation (Ir.F) , depriving irrigation one in the tillers stage (Ir.D1), depriving irrigation in the elongation stage (Ir.D2) and depriving irrigation in each of the tillers stage+elongation stage (Ir.D3) occupied the main plots. While, treatments of application salicylic such as (0.5 ,1 and 1.5 mM.L-1 water) and its code as (SA1.S, SA2.S and SA3.S) sequentially as well as a the treatment comparison (DW.S), occupied in the sub plotsThe results showed that the treatment of depriving irrigation one in the tillers stage + elongation stage (Ir.D3) caused a higher reduction in the traits plant height (cm), the number of tillers (tiller.m-2), flag leaf area (cm2), spike length (cm), the relative water content (%),chlorophyll content ( spad ) , number of grains per spike (grain.spike-1) and grain yield (tons. ha-1) At a rate of  23.81%, 20.38%, 29.78%, 27.40 %, 21.56%, 22.96%, 35.97% and 50.69% sequentially for the treatment comparison (Ir.F)Treatment caused sprayed salicylic acid a concentration of 1.5 mM.L-1 (SA3.S) a significant increase in the highest qualities of the studied plant height (cm), the number of tillers (tiller.m-2), flag leaf area (cm2) and spike length (cm), the relative water content(%), chlorophyll content (spad), number of grains per spike (grain.spike-1) and grain yield (tons. ha-1) rates stood at 7.70%, 6.71%, 13.40%, 5.40% , 9.0%, 8.27%, 9.44% and 17.36% sequentially for the treatment comparison sprayed with water only (DW.S).

Effect of Ground and foliar fertilization using Humzinc compound on some growth and yield characters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Issa T. Khalaf; Bassima A. Assal; R. R. Araak

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 62-73

An experiment was carried out to study the effect of ground and foliar application on some growth and yield characters of wheat. The compound Humzinc being used with the components 40% humic acid , 3.5% , 2.5% and 1.5% for pelleted Fe , Zn and Mn respectively , resulting from dissolving 10 gm in 10 liter of Water. The experiment included 9 treatments by increasing the weights above 10 gm (comparny recommendation) symmetrically up to 24 gm in 10 liter of water sprayed at two growth stages (after tillering and heading). 100 kgN / ha-1 + 100 kg P ha-1 was used as a ground fertilization.
 
The results showed that ground application + 24 gm in 10 liter of water gave the best results in stem height (cm) and flag leaf area (cm2). The ground fertilization treatment had the lowest means. In general there were no significant differences between the fertilization treatments at high levels of spraying. Thus there was a decrease trend in leaf numbers. Spraying at heading gave the best results for the overall studied growth characters. With the interaction , the treatment ground application + 24 gm in 10 liter of water sprayed at heading had the highest means. That effect was persisted on yield components , yield and biological yields , whereas , the ground application + 24 gm in 10 liter of water gave the best results. But , there was no significant differences between the ground application treatment and other foliar spraying treatments. In general spraying the compound at high concentrations doubled the grain yield. The treatment ground fertilization + 24 gm in 10 liter of water gave 8.18 ton ha-1 compared with 4.81 ton ha-1 at basal application only.
 

Response of some vegetative growth ponitars maize zea mays l. To spray potasium and zinc

RANA .R.ARRAK

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 74-87

Field experiment were conducted in autumn season 2015 in Al-wataifia region/Great Mussiab Project on Loamy soil to study the effect of foliar application of 4 levels from potassium fertilizer  (0 , 1000 , 2000 , and 4000 mg.L-1) , and 4 levels of Zinc fertilizer ( 0 , 30 , 60 , and 90 mg.L-1) and their interaction on some vegetative growth parameters of zea mays plant (Buhuth 106 variety), the experiment in RCBD with 3 replications and the average value were compared according to LSD test at 5% level , the results shows :
 
     Significant differences between K level treatments, the treatment (4000 mg.L-1) significantly increase the average value of plant height , No. of leaves , leaf area , chlorophyll content , shoot dry matter , and NPK absorption in plant  with increasing percentage ( 16.15 ,  41.8 , 47.58 , 10.13 , 60.24 , 94.96 , 124.46 , and 85.19% respectively compare with control treatment . Zinc treatment ( 90 mg.L-1) increase significantly a parameter above with increasing percentage ( 12.82 , 28.63 , 37.92 , 15.21 , 30.82 , 45.48 , 89.52 , and 61.17% respectively) compare with control treatment , while the interaction treatment ( 4000 mg.L-1 + 90 mg.L-1) increase significantly the growth parameters compared with other interaction treatments. 

Predict of field emergence for several plant species through some la-boratory germination tests

S. H. Cheyed; N. J. Mohammed; J, H. Hamza

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 88-99

The wide range of genetic and environmental variations in which plant species grow, makes predicting its field emergence extremely complex matter. Therefore this study aimed to predict field emergence through laboratory germination tests for two cultivars of each of maize (Baghdad-3 and Fejir), sorghum (Jiza-113, Inqath), sunflower (Akmar and shomoos) and safflower (Urduni and Al-mays). A laboratory and field experiment was carried out with one factor which is laboratory germination tests (standard germination test, cold test and accelerate age test) as well as the field emergence in the fall season of 2015 of species above in the laboratories of department of seed certification and testing, the Public Authority for Agricultural Research and fields of Field Crops Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad. Analysis of variance was carried out according to the design of randomized complete block with eight replications for each variety separately, and the treatments average were compared with the least significant difference test (p value = 0.05). In general, results of variance analysis showed significant differences for influence of laboratory germination methods and field emergence in the percentage of normal seedling, but there were no significant differences also between the field emergence and among some of those methods, which refers to the possibility of predicting field emergence through it, since there was no significant difference between the percentage of normal seedling of field emergence and its percentage in each one of accelerate age test for maize seed both cultivars Baghdad-3 and Fajir, its percentage in standard laboratory germination test and accelerate age test for sunflower seed both Akmar and shomoos, and its percentage in accelerate age test for safflower seed Al-mays variety. There was also a significant difference between the percentage of normal seedling of field emergence and its percentage in each of other tests of sorghum seeds both cultivars (Giza-113 and Inqath) and safflower seed Urduni variety, which indicates unpredictability field emergence for it through those tests. We conclude that the seed tests vary in their ability to predict the field emergence according to differences of species and its varieties. And accelerate age test often resemble the field emergence and can promise as one of the indicators that can be used to predict the field emergence of those varieties that are planted in fall seasons.

The evaluation of fungus effectiveness of Tricherma harzianum and penicillium oxalicum in the control of pythim aphanidermatum fungus the causative of cucumber seeds rotting

Kadhom Hussain Kadhom Albehadi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 100-111

The study's  included isolation six isolates of the Pythium aphanidermatum and knowledge of its ability to root rot of cucumber, if that possiblityto control by using two fungi Trichderma harzianum and Penicillium oxalicum.
 
The results showed that all isolates fungus P.aphanidermatum was a pathogenesis at the plant cucumber was the most virulent is the isolation (P3) where the percentage of germination of the seeds of the existence of this fungus is 13.3 % compared with 80% in the control , As well as this isolation has made reductions revealed a significant differences on the rate of fresh and dry weight of  plant cucumbers where they were 0.043 and 0.0113 g, respectively, compared with 0.268 and 0.692 g, respectively, in the treatment comparison, and have achieved as well as less weight Fresh and dry root plant  where it was 0.0053 and 0.0008 g, respectively, compared with (0.0328 and 0.0054) g, respectively, for the treatment of comparison. The results showed that the fungi biological control  T. harzianum and P. oxalicum antagonistic ability against all isolates fungus P.aphanidermatumand the degree of antagonistic with isolation (P3) 2 for each of the fungi biological control  T. harzianum and P. oxalicum. The results also showed an ability of biology control fungi  T. harzianum and P. oxalicum seeds to protect and increase the percentage of germination, they were 72 and 68 %, respectively, with the presence of pathogenic fungus P.aphanidermatumwhile 16% in the treatment, which only add the fungi pathogen P.aphanidermatum, also achieved these two fungi T. harzianum and P. oxalicum significant difference in the growth of seedlings cucambers where they were fresh and dry weight of the total vegetative with T. harzianum and the presence of the pathogen is a fungus 0.166 and 0.019 g, respectively, and with the fungi P. oxalicum and the presence of pathogenic fungus is 0.153 and 0.014 g, respectively, compared with 0.23 and 0.006 g in the treatment , which only add the pathogen fungus was fresh and dry weight of the root  with T. harzianum and the presence of pathogenic fungus is (0.163 and 0.00113) g However respectively fungus P. oxalicum and the presence of the pathogen is a fungus 0.154 and 0.00106 g, respectively, compared with 0.0065 and 0.00023 g on the treatment , which only add a pathogenic fungus
 

Isolation and diagnosis of the pathogens causing seed decay and damping-off disease on wheat and control them using some biological and chemical factors

محسن عبد علی الموسوی; عدنان عبد الجلیل لهوف; علا هادی جعفر

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 112-132

This study was conducted to isolate and identify the causal agents of seed decay and damping-off disease on wheat. Additionally, the biological factorBacillus thurigensis (BT), the chemical induction factor BION (BI) and the extract of sea algae (MU) were evaluated in control of this disease. After isolation process, the cultural features of the fungal isolates were investigated and their pathogenicity was assessed. The PCR technique was operated also to study the most pathogenic fungal isolates. Subsequently, the efficiency of the above three factors were evaluated in control of the disease in the plastic house. The results showed that the pathogens of this disease were belonging to two fungal genus  Rhizoctonia and Fusarium. As well as, all fungal isolates were highly pathogenic. Pure DNA with enough quantity was extracted from these fungal isolates in order to conduct a PCR reaction after manipulating of the DNA extraction process. The results displayed also good inhibition ability of the BT against all pathogenic fungal isolates with inhibition percentage ranged between 68.05-87.21%. Additionally, the biological and chemical factors selected in this study proved their efficiency in controlling of this disease particularly when they were applied in integrated method. F1+BI+MU+BT and R1+BI +MU+BT treatments caused the highest percentage of seed germination reached 100% and 93.33% in addition to the lowest percentages of seed decay and damping-off 0% in both of them and disease severity 17% and 19.33% respectively.  Furthermore, the growth characteristics of wheat plants were significantly improved comparing with the Benlet fungicide treatment in plastic house experiment. The data of this study may indicate to possibility of applying these three factors together to control the seed decay and damping-off disease and possibility preserving of the environment simultaneously.

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of two pesticides Chlorfenapyr and Abamectin on the population density of the stages of the Two spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) under field conditions.

Taha M. Mohammed AL-Sweedi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 133-145

The study aimed to evaluate the Effectiveness of two pesticides Chlorfenapyr and Abamectin on the population density of the stages  of the Two spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) under field conditions and carried out in one area of ​​orchards Al-wond - Hosseinieh city - the holy city of Kerbala .The results showed that two pesticides Chlorfenapyr and Abamectin had an influence evident in the population density of the number of eggs and other stages of mite of the larva and nymph and seriously, as the percentage of the effectiveness of the pesticide Chlorfenapyr are 87 and 100% after 96 and 120 hours of spraying and scored 81.7, 81.1 and 85% after 30.60, 90 days and recorded a percentage of the effectiveness of the pesticide after time, 120 hours of combat morally and clear for the rest of the time difference, where it did not find anyone alive members of the mite factories of this pesticide, and the results achieved by the pesticide Abamectin was 92.2, 100, 82, 79 and 72% after 96 hours, 120 hours, 30 days, 60 days and 90 days, respectively, was not the four directions of the tree and a clear effect on the results of this research at the control Balambadan so we recommend using the pesticide Chlorfenapyr with Abamectin pesticide to control this mite.

Effect of Adding Different Levels of ( Citric acid and Malice acid and Oxalic acid and their mixture) to Diet on productive performance of broiler.

FadelAbd AL-ameer Mohammed; Saad Mohsen Aljashami

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 146-160

Experiment was conducted in a poultry station affiliated  the holy Karbala agriculture directorate for the period from 10/31/2015 to 12.12.2015 used in 900 chick meat breed of Rose - 308. The study included adding two different levels of each of the individually organic acids and synergistic and at different concentrations the to see their impact on performance and productivity them. the chicks were distributed randomly on nine treatments by 100 chicks each treatment and chicks divided randomly into four replications (25 chicks each repeater).  
 
 First treatment T1 as control group with out any additive, Second treatment T2 adding of Citric acid 0.75 g / kg diet, Treatment T3 adding of Citric acid 1.5 g / kg diet, Fourth T4 treatment adding of Maleic acid 0.75 g / kg diet, Fifth treatment T5 adding of Maleic acid 1.5 g / kg diet, Sixth treatment T6 adding of Oxalic acid 0.75 g /kg diet, Seventh treatment T7 adding of   Oxalic acid. 1.5 g / kg diet, Eighth treatment T8 adding of Citric acid 0.25 g + Maleic acid 0.25 g + Oxalic acid 0 .25  g / kg diet and Ninth treatment T9 adding of Citric acid 0.5 g  +Maleic acid 0.5 g + Oxalic acid  0.5 g / kg diet.
 
  The results of the experiment to the following:
 
The results of the experiment that the birds of the sixth treatment with added Oxalic acid concentration of 0.75 g / kg feed has outperformed significantly (p <0.01) on the rest of the transactions in the body weight at the sixth week of age and reached 2708 g in the rate of weight gain cumulative 2581.75 g and the rate of the total feed consumption 4475.25 g for all other transactions.
 
There was no significant difference in the proportion of total mortality for all the various treatment, including the control treatment because mortality ratios are below the normal level in all treatments .

Effect of dietary supplementation with different level of lycopene in fertility, hatchability traits and concentrations of estrogen and proges-terone hormones in serum of Iraqi local geese.

Yahya A.Aljanabi; Thamer Kareem Aljanabi; Salam M. Alta,e; Ahmed N.Alyaseri

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 161-169

 This study has been conducted at the poultry farm for department of Animal Resource, College of Agriculture at University of Baghdad during the period from 20/10/2013 to 28/3/2014. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with different level of lycopene in fertility and hatchability from fertilize eggs, hatchability from set eggs, embryonic mortality and concentrations of estrogen and progesterone hormones in serum of local Iraqi geese. A total of 48 local geese females two years old were used in this study. The geese were randomly distributed in to four treatments groups, each group consisted of 12 birds. Birds were fed during the whole period on diet contain 15% crude protein and 2950 Kcal metabolic energy / kg. Lycopene was added to the diets of birds at the beginning till the end of experiment period. The birds were reared in single separated cages during the experiment period. groups were as following:  Treatment 1 (T1) birds fed diet without any addition of lycopene (control group) , Treatment 2 (T2) birds fed diet supplemented with 300 mg lycopene / Kg of diet, Treatment 3 (T3) birds fed diet supplemented with 600 mg lycopene / Kg of diet, Treatment 4 (T4) birds fed diet supplemented with 900 mg lycopene / Kg of diet.
 
Results revealed that dietary supplementation with different levels of lycopene resulted in Significant improvement with respect to percentages of  fertility and hatchability from fertilize eggs, hatchability from set eggs and embryonic mortality as compared with control group. Significant increase in serum concentrations of estrogen and progesterone hormones in compared with control group.

Effect of organic acids blend supplementation to the ration on some productive and physiological traits of broilers

M. A.Fahad; Ola M. K. Al-Daouri

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 170-179

The research was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of  organic acids blend to the ration on some productive  and physiological traits of broiler . A total number of 300 one day old chicks( Ross 308) were used ,those chicks were  randomly distributed in to 5 treatment and each treatment involved 3 equal replications. organic acids were added to the  starter and finisher  ration during the 2nd week of age, the first treatment fed on ordinary ration without the addition  (control treatment ) mean while  organic acids were supplemental as 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% to the second , third, fourth and fifth treatmants respectively .  results illustrated a highly significant (p <0.05) surpassing of mean body weights in the 4th treatment during the 4th  week of age with  a significant  improvement (p<0.05) of mortality rate in the 5th  treatment, in addition the results indicated highly significant (p <0.01) improvement  of Packed Cell Volume in the 4th and 5th treatments as well as a highly significant(p <0.01) improvement of  heterophil  lymphocyte ratio in the 3rd ,4th and 5th  treatments.

Extraction of two local types of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) proteins and study of its functional properties

Ethar Z. Naji

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2017, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 180-190

A study of the chemical composition of the protein isolates of two types, white and red cowpea, (obtained from the local markets in Baghdad province), which have been extracted at pH 9.5 and sedimented at 4.5, showed a higher percentage of each of the moisture, ash, protein, and low carbohydrate for red cowpea protein isolate, reached 7.12%, 2.31%, 82.21% and 8.36% compared with 6.22% , 1.57% , 79.58% and 12.63% for white cowpea protein isolate respectively, the protein solubility at different  pH values ranged between 2-9, showed  a lowest solubility at pH 5 while the highest at pH 9, with the values of 4.82% , 2.99% at pH 5, 23.93% , 28.24% at pH 2, and 52.15%, 51.20% at pH 9, for white and red cowpea isolates respectively, the study showed  also a higher  water holding capacity and lowest oil holding capacity for red cowpea protein isolate, reaching 2.05 g water/ g protein compared with 1.39 gm water/ gm protein, and 1.68, 1.53 g fat/ g protein for white and red  cowpea isolates respectively. A study of the functional properties of the protein isolates at pH values 3-9, showed that a lowest were at pH 5, they were for emulsifying index 12.00% , 15. 60%, emulsion stability 15.4% , 12.6%, foaming ability 18.19% , 14.99%, and foam stability 14.89% , 12.23% for white and red cowpea protein isolate respectively, while the maximum was at pH 9 reaching, emulsifying index 80.76%, 75.41%, emulsion stability 80.9% , 90.65, foaming ability 85.43%, 83.33%, and foam stability 70.54%, 66.90% for white and red protein isolate respectively, using different concentrations ranged from 2-20 %, showed that the lowest concentration needed to form a gel was 14% of the white cowpea protein isolate, and 12% for the red one, and not configure a static gel, unless the concentration was 16% for the tow samples of the study.