Print ISSN: 2309-5199

Online ISSN: 2616-6933

Issue 5,

Issue 5


Spatial and temporal pattern of sympatric fish assemblage in the Al-Sweib River South of Iraq

Abdul Hussein Jaafer Abdullah; Sajad Abdul-Geni Abdullah; Osama Abid Alhadi Al- Robayii

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 1-17

Spatial and temporal pattern of fish assemblages in the Al-Sweib River Southern Iraq was investigated from January to December 2017 to determine the nature of the fish community structure in the river. Two stations were chosen for the implementation of the work. Monthly variations in rates of water temperature were measured; it has been ranged from 11°C in December to 36°C in July and August. Salinity rates differ from 0.81ppt in February to 1.66 ppt in August. The value rates of dissolved oxygen in the studying area varied from 6.7 mg/l in August to 9.9 mg/l in January. The total alkalinity values rates in the work area differ from 115 mg/l in February to 156 mg/l in August. Several fishing methods were used to collect the samples of fishes: drift and fixed gill net, seine net and cast net. 
A total of 6902 fish individuals collected from the Al-Sweib River included 27 species, represented 27 genera and 12 families, all of them belonging to Osteichthyes. The species were 11 native, ten alien and six marine. Four species topped the total numerical relative abundance in present the investigated area, formed 81.72% of the total number, Planiliza abu 35.34%, Oreochromis aureus18.68%, Carassius gibelio 17.51%and Coptodon zillii 10.19%. The diversity index values classified as poor in the studying area, the values ranged from 1.48 in December to 2.07 in March at station 1, whereas station 2 from 1.33 in December to 2.17 in May. Values of richness index were between turbulent to half integrate, they ranged from 1.33 in December to 2.31 March in station1, while from 1.50 in November to 2.78 in June station 2. Evenness index between half balanced to balance varied from 0.65 in October and 0.89 in August station 1, but at station 2 it was between 0.56 in December and 0.87 in July. The total similarities between the stations formed 36.84% in June and 72.73% in November. The study showed that the composition of fish community in Al-Sweib River was similar to that of the northern part of Shatt Al-Arab River.

Drought tolerance of some bread and durum wheat vareities during germination

Sherwan I. Tawfiq; Sanarya R. Muhammed; Rozhgar Mustafa Ahmed

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 18-29

A laboratory experiment was conducted in Phytochemistry lab., Field Crop Science Department, College of Agriculture, University of Sulaimani  during summer season of July to August, 2009. This factorial experiment conducted in a Randomized Complete Design with three replications, the factors are: the first was two species of wheat,  Bread Wheat Triticum aestivum : Tammuz, Rabiaa, Rizgary, Sham-6 and Aras,  and Durum Wheat Triticum durum: Acsad, Seminto, Crezo, Ovanto and Sham-3 and the second factors was five salt solutions 5000, 10000, 15000, 20000 and 25000 ppm. Various morpho-physiological parameter germination percentage, root length, shoot length, mean germination time were studied. From the results it was observed that Rabbia variety was the mostly drought tolerant among the other bread wheat varieties having significant effect of most germination attributes, Sham-3 variety gave maximum values of germination % and radicle length, while maximum coleoptile length, coefficient of velocity of germination% and minimum days required to germination recorded by Crezo variety. For both bread and durum wheat, the highest values of most germination attributed were obtained by treatment of control. Concerning the interaction between both of bread and durum wheat varieties and NaCl concentration, Tammuz variety with the treatment of control gave maximum values for most characters, while the interaction between Rabbia variety and 20000ppm NaCl recorded minimum days needed to germination. But regarding mean germination time character, interaction of Acsad, and Sham-3 with control treatment gave maximum value.  In which all other values of germination attributes were 0.00 for 10000, 15000, 20000 and 25000ppm salt concentration, because all durum wheat varieties had not tolerant for drought condition.

Effect of Intercropped and Micro Nutrient Fertilizers For Cucurbita pepo L. And Cucumis sativus L. On Water Productivity and Yield Under Drip Irrigation System

Alaa Salih Ati; Kadhim Dealy Hassan; Kadhim Naser

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 30-37

   Field experiment was carried out during spring season of 2017 in the field of Agricultural Collage- University of Baghdad/ Al - Jadriya., Iraq in silt loam calcareous soil to study the effect of micronutrients and water amount applied to intercropped Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus on yield and water use efficiency. Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin) (synthetic cv. US, Agriseed, Fadwa) andCucumis sativus(cucumber) (synthetic cv. Kazear) were planted monocropping and a strip intercropped. The experiment was a Split Plot Design arranged in RCBD with three replications. micronutrients treatment represents the main plot and intercropping system treatment as sub plot. Micronutrients treatments included application of 3 rates 0, 150 and 250 g 1000 m-2. Monocropping for Pumpkin and cucumber were planted one line in treatments unit, while Intercropping for Pumpkin and cucumber were planted two line for any one in treatment units. All plots were irrigated with river water (ECi =1.45 dS m-1), and irrigation was imposed at 35% depletion of available water using drip irrigation system.
  Results indicated that number of irrigations were 40,41 and 39 for monocropping of Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus and intercropping irrigation systems consuming 410 and 425 and 440 mm for the three treatments, respectively. All growth and yield arameters were no significantly at or/and at monocropping compared to intercropping. The interactions effect between the amount of micronutrient and water on fruits yield indicated that the best two treatments were 250 g 1000 m-2 with mono or /and intercropping (the best overall treatment and no significant with 150g1000m-2 ), and Values of IWUE for intercropping are almost more than monocropping.

First Record of Tripartiella rhombi Shtein , 1961 (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) in Iraq from Gills of the Common Carp Cyprinus Carpio

Kefah N. Abdul-Ameer; Fatima K. Atwan

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 38-42

The examination of gills of the Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758 which were placid from Al-Graiat location on the Tigris river at Baghdad province during the period from July 2015 until the end of March 2016, caused recording of the ciliophoran Tripartiella rhombi Shtein, 1961for the first time in Iraq. The explanation and measurements of this parasite as well as its illustrations were given. With this record, two of Tripartiella species so far recorded from C. carpio as well as of all other Iraqi fishes.

Effect of olive leaves extract on some physical and chemical traits of broiler meat during refrigeration storage

Arazu Abdullah Hama

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 43-52

This study was carried out in High Education lab., Animal Science Department, College of Agricultural Science, University of Sulaimani during June to July, 2016 to examine the effect of two concentration of natural olive leaves extract (OLE) 2 and 4% v/v, by application of two methods (spray and immersion) on some physical (water holding capacity and cooking loss), and chemical (thiobarbituric acid and free fatty acid) characteristics of broiler meat during refrigerate storage (4±1ᵒC) for 0, 2, 5 and 7 days. The treatments included: T1: (control), T2: 2% OLE spray, T3: 2% OLE immersion, T4: 4% OLE spray and T5: 4% OLE immersion. Water holding capacity (WHC) and cooking loss (CL) percentages showed significantly differences (p≤0.01) among treatments after 5 and 7 days storage, the highest WHC value (43.500%) recorded in T5 after 5 days storage when sample was treated with 4% OLE emersion compared with control treatment which recorded the lowest WHC value (34.200%) after 7 days storage. For CL after 5 days storage T4 recorded lower value (38.170%) compared to T2 (42.920%), whereas after 7 days storage T5 recorded lower CL value (42.380%) compared to T1(48.015%) and T2 (46.285%). Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value decreased significantly (p≤0.01) with using of OLE after 7 days storage, and the highest value recorded in T1 (1.410 mg malonaldehyde/kg). Also there were a positive effect of OLE on free fatty acid (FFA) value after 2, 5 and 7 days of storage , after 2 days storage T5 recorded lest FFA value (0.381%), while the highest value recorded in T1 (0.925%). Also after 5 and 7 days storage OLE treatments recorded lower FFA value compared to T1 which recorded the highest value (1.150%) after 7 days storage.
These results suggested that using of olive leaves extract as natural antioxidant to improve broiler meat quality characteristics and extend shelf-life during refrigerate storage, which may have implications of meat processors.

Estimation of some genetic parameters in maize under adequacy and insufficient water.

Kareema Wuhaib; Bnan Hadi; Wajeeha Abed Hassan

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 53-66

Afield experiment was conducted during two season , spring and fall 2013  in the Field of Crop Science Dept. – College of Agriculture – University of Baghdad . The objective of this experiment are to estimate the genetic parameters , broad sense heritability and co-heritability for several traits of maize ( Zea mays L.) for the synthetic cultivar , Ibaa 5012 , under watered and water stress treatments ( 5 and 10 days intervals) by using randomized complete block design with four replications . Genotypic , phenotypic and environmental variation (   , , ) genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation ( GCV , PCV) and broad sense heritability were estimated for ten traits : traits : days to anthesis , days to silking , plant height , ear height , number of leaves , leaf area , days to physiological maturity , dry weight , crop growth rate and grains yield . The results showed that genetic variance for most traits more than environment . GCV values for all traits very closed from PCV , that means the traits were under genetic control .All values of broad sense heritability for both seasons and irrigation treatment are high . The highest value was for the dry weight , crop growth  rate, grain yield and number of leaves in two season under irrigated , while in water stress , in addition to these traits the days to physiological maturity . It can conclude that the change in the plant environment due to water stress caused a change in the genetic parameters of the studied traits , especially the change in the amount of genetic variance and the environmental variance , it increased the values of some parameters of the traits and reduced to some others . This led to a change in the values of heritability and co-heritability.
 

Risk evaluation of accumulated heavy metals for Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. sativus) cultivars irrigated by varying water resources

Caser Ghaafar Abdel; Aveen A. Ibrahim

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 67-88

Three radish cultivars  namely Ufasic,  Gigante,  and Saxa2  grown under plastic house, irrigated by familiar Life drinking water, well and Dohuk river wastewater to evaluate the risk of accumulated  heavy metals in leaves and root of three radish cultivars. The obtained results manifested that a very high amount of Pb accumulate as compared to the international recommended standard. Maximum Pb limit for human health has been established for edible parts of crops (0.2 mg.kg-1). Particularly, in edible leaves of radish irrigated with bottled water “life” and waste water (19.8641 and 15.6603µg.g-1,respectively).Similar trends obsered in accumulated Pb in edible  roots of life water (19.69µg.g-1) and waster water (25.74µg.g-1).Waste water  significantly increased  the accumulated Zn (9.732µg.g-1 ), in edibile leaves of radish. Radish roots were not capable to sequestered Zn in their roots, and therefore, most absorbed Zn  translocated to leaves. The  lowst  accumulated Cd in  edible  radish  root (0.986µg.g-1) observed in radish irrigated with well water. Saxa2 can be recommended for Pb bio remedy for extracting Pb from growing media. Ufasic and Saxa2 can be recommended for Zn extraction from growing media. Gigante engages the gap between them. Interaction results mentioned in results and discussion.

First record of Myxobolus problematicus from gills of Carasobarbus luteus fish from tigris river, Al-Shawwaka region in Baghdad city, Iraq

Abid Ali Jenzeel Jbara Al-Saadi; Rabab A. Rasheed

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 89-94

A total of 35 specimens of the fish Carasobarbus luteus (Heckel, 1843) were collected from Tigris River in Al-Shawwaka region in Baghdad city. The results showed that fish were found to be infected with five species of parasites, these parasites were Myxobolus chondrostomi, M. problematicus, Dactylogyrus bocageii, D. lenkorani and Procamallanus viviparous. In addition which were M. problematicus considered as a first record in Iraq, as well as C. luteus as a new host in Iraq for these five species of parasites.

Germination and seedling growth under saline stress in maize

Muwafaq Abdul-Razzaq AL-Naqeeb; Mohammed Hathal Kadhm AL-Baldawi; Jalal Hameed Hamza; Mohammad Omar Shihab; Hiba Saleh Nada; Safaa Abdalhassan Ghadban AL-Ali; Buthaina Abdel-Hussein Shehade

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 1-13

An experiment was carried out at Seed Technology Laboratory, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad in the year of 2017 to investigate the response of seed germination of four synthetic cultivars of maize (Fajr1, Almaha, Baghdad3 and Sara) under four levels of salt stress by using sodium chloride (0, 1, 4 and 7 dS.m-1). The complete randomized design was used with four replicates. The results showed that the cultivar and the electrical conductivity and their interaction had a significant effect on most studied traits. The highest ratio of variability in the studied traits was related to the effect of electrical conductivity compared to cultivar effect. The cultivar of Baghdad3 was supremacy on other cultivars when gave the highest averages of germination ratio, lengths of plumule and radicle, seedling dry weight and seedling vigour index. There was a significant negative linear relationship between electrical conductivity and the traits that mentioned above. The control treatment gave the highest averages for those traits, which decreased when electrical conductivity was increased and a significant difference was found between all levels. The cultivar of Baghdad3 had supremacy on other cultivars at each level of electrical conductivity in most traits. It can be concluded that the cultivar of Baghdad3 was the best studied cultivars that tolerate salinity during stages of germination and seedling growth. It can be recommended that to use it in saline lands or when irrigated with saline water.

Detection of Tomato bushy stunt virus in tomato felids by biology and serology assay, and transmit it by soil

Hameed Hamoud Ali; Noor Salah Ahmed

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 14-24

This study was conducted out to detected the tomato bushy stunt virus in tomato felids at Ninawa Province included Salamia & Sad Badysh locations. The virus was isolated from infected tomato plants, and identified by mean symptoms on indicator plants, and DAS-ELISA test. Ch. amaranticolor was responded to inoculation by virus necrotic local lesion, D. stramonium by small chlorotic local lesions on inoculated leaves, developed later to mosaic. C. annuum by chlorotic local lesions. P. hybrid by systemic mosaic. Tobacco plants  N. glutinosa , N. tabacum, N. rustica were responded to necrotic local lesion. On the other hand N. clevelandii showed a systemic mosaic with the necrosis on the top of new leaves. It was observed that the movement of TBSV from TBSV amended soil in healthy tomato seedling cultivar Jessie fast on in plants sown directly into TBSV-contaminated soil, the virus was detected by DAS-ELISA at 32 days after sowing. In seedlings, previously soon in autoclaved soil and later transplanted in TBSV-contaminated soil, TBSV was first detected at 51 days after sown. At the final harvest (110 d.a.s.) 54% of plant sown directly into TBSV-contaminated soil were found to be infected with TBSV as compared with 30% of those transplanted

Impact of Agricultural exploitation and duration in the Use on some elements nutrients Some of the soil of Al-Qasim Denatore

Amal Radhi Jubier AL – Kurayshi; Eiman Asmaiel Jasim

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 25-42

Selected soils located in Al-Qasim area in the southern part of the province of Babylon between latitudes  23̊09̍02.69̎ N to 32̊26̍36.04̎ N north and longitudes 44̊23̍41.97̎ E to 44̊48̍52.69̎  E East 7is selected at the Fayadieh area 3053.5 hectare. Alpedons coordinates were determined using a GPS and selected on the basis of differences in agricultural exploitation period. Pedon is selected in the soils used for 5,10 and 15 years. These are compared with that  of untapped agricultural soils. This revealed the pedonat and described its prospects was dogmatic morphology description obtain samples from all horizons and study fertility properties.
the results Showed fertility Properties Statistical analysis of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than primers used for duration 5 years Morally sxploited for Soil  10-15 years,and there were no moral differences of nitrogen Content between phosphorus duration  5 years  and Soil bare (agricultural land unused)  but overtook the moral treatment of Soil bare potassium soil Content under durations 5 ,10 ,15 years  .
          Soil was Classified as Studied by American Classification (22) Classify Series (7 ), Classified all the exploited agricultural land unused (bare ) to the order of Entisosls if Classified Subgroup TypicTorrifluvents, Soil Classification Series Alagidi were as follows:
TW1176,TW1167,TM855,DM86,DW116,DW56 and MW11.

Evaluation of the agriculture land contamination with heavy elements in sumer city

Wafaa Sahib Abbod AL-Awasy; Fadhel S . AL-Kinany; Luma Abdalalah Sagban Al - Abudi; Noor Ahmed Noori

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 43-54

The reality of the pollution of cadmium, lead and nickel was studied in four agricultural sites and for different distances. The first site is about 7 meter away from the main road leading to the city of Sumar - Diwaniyah governorate. The second location is about 100 meters away from the main street.. The third site is about 200 meters away and the fourth site is about 300 meters And for two different depths (0-15 cm) and (15-45) cm.
Soil samples were analyzed to estimate concentrations of the above-mentioned heavy metals for both soil and plants. The results showed that the concentration of cadmium, lead and nickel in the soil samples of the study and when compared with the determinants of the World Health Organization (WHO) showed that it did not exceed the permissible limit, with a concentration rate of ( 0.032- 0.142 ) mg  Kg-1 and (0.680 - 1.580) mg  Kg-1 and (8.750 - 14.200) mg  Kg-1 respectively, The highest concentration was recorded at the first site near the source of pollution (the main street leading to the city of Sumer) and the lowest concentration at the last site, which is 300 meters from the main street. The results also showed that the surface of the soil is more susceptible to pollution than other layers.
When compared the laboratory results of concentrations of heavy metals studied in plant models with WHO determinants, the lead component showed a clear increase in the study models from the WHO limit of 0.3 mg  Kg-1, with the highest concentration at 1.70 mg  Kg-1  - With the knowledge that the concentration in the soil of the study did not exceed the permissible limit, which indicates the high susceptibility to the absorption of plants for this element, albeit with a few concentrations and this indicates the seriousness of plant cultivation in soil contaminated with this element.

Investigation the relationship between age groups and feeding of Leuciscus vorax and their parasitic infection

Yassir Dakheel Kremsh Alasadiy

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 55-67

A total 194  specimens of Leuciscus vorax (Heckel, 1843) were collected from the Euphrates River passing through Samawa, Al-Sawyer area for the period from 2016 until the end of April 2017 to investigate parasitic infections .The results showed that there were six age groups (II +- VII +) for male and female fish with the dominance of the age group (III+) and that the fish fed on the phytoplankton and crustaceans in small age groups and on fish and insects in large age groups. Crustaceans, fish and insects are the main food groups with a total percentage 66.44 , 29.89 and 13.92 respectively .The results showed that ( 135) fish were infected with a total percentage 69.59. One species was diagnosed was Trichodina pediculus as well as two species of nematodes Rhabdochona kurdistanensis and Rhabdochona denudata, Leuciscus vorax is considered a new host record in Iraq of parasites T. pediculus and R. kurdistanensis, as well as a correlation between the parasites causing this type of infection. The highest value of coefficient of contingency 0.9767 was recorded between R. denudata and ciliated parasite T. pediculus, compared between the value of coefficient of contingency between T. pediculus parasite and R. kurdistanensis 0.9668,The lowest value of coefficient of contingency between  parasite R. denudata and parasite R. kurdistanensis 0.8666.

Effect of spraying with different concentration of zinc and iron on seedling growth of sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.).

Mohammed H. Abeed; Suzan M.K. AL-Rubaei; Manar A.F. Hasan; Ola H. Mahmood

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 68-88

An experiment was conducted in lath house at the college of Agriculture, University of Karbaladuring the growth season of 2017 to study the effect of different concentration of zinc and iron on seedling growth of sour orange ,Three replicates were used for each treatment . Zinc was used at three level 0,50 and100 mg. L-1 and three level of iron 0,25 and 50 mg. L-1 . The seedling were sprayed at two interval 15/3/2017 and 30/3/2017 and they were irrigated one day before spraying dates . The experiment was conducted according to the Completely Randomized Design (C.R.D) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was based on L.S.D (0.05) .All measurements were taken at the end of June, the results showed as follow:
          1-The concentration of zinc at 100 mg. L-1 significantly surpassed all other concentration regarding all studied characters height of seedling, stem diameter , number of leaves, leaf area, dry weight of shoot system , root length , root volume, root diameter, dry weight of root system , chlorophyll content in leaves , nitrogen percentage in leaves , protein percentage in leaves , zinc concentration in leaves and iron concentration in leaves. Which gave 58.11 cm, 8.39 mm, 83.11 leaf. seedling-1, 3250 cm2, 14.51g, 36.00 cm, 29.33 cm3, 3.20cm, 8.14g, 51.52mg. 100g-1 fresh weight, 3.55%, 22.17%, 48.91mg. L-1and  64.50 mg. L-1respectively.
          2-Iron concentration at 50 mg. L-1  significantly surpassed all other concentration regarding all studied growth characters which gave 55.00 cm ,7.65 mm ,73.89 leaf. seedling-1 , 2553 cm2 ,12.48 g .seedling-1, 31.44 cm, 24.89 cm3 , 3.12 cm ,6.98g. seedling-1, 49.13mg.100g-1 fresh weight, 3.35%, 20.90%, 47.43 mg. L-1 and 62.11 mg.L-1  respectively.
3-The interaction between zinc and iron had no significant effect on the most character of growth including (stem diameter) number of leaves , leaf area, dry weight of shoot system, root length, root volume ,root diameter ,chlorophyll content in leaves ,nitrogen percentage , protein percentage, zinc concentration in leaves andiron concentration in leaves  however the significant effect of this interaction was on height of seedling and dry weight of root system at the concentration of 100 mg. L-1 of zinc and 50 mg. L-1 of iron gave 64.67 cm and 9.27g, respectively.

Effect of organic fertilizers sources and level of mineral fertilizers in total tuber yield and concentration of N, P and K in tuber of potato (Solonum tuberosum L.)

Jawad Taha Mahmood AL-Fadlay; Naddin Aziz Salman AL- Khadimy

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 89-99

To investigate the effects of manure (plants residue) on growth and yield of potato in calcareous soil, afield experiment were conducted in field located in physical education college areas Baghdad University – Jadiriyah campus in fall season 2015-2016 in a sandy loam soil, Included two factors first factor is four serous of manure O0 (without application) O1( poultry) O3( wheat straw) O3 (palm fronds) with 30 Ton h-1, Second factor application three level of mineral fertilizers (without application) M0 (120 N + 60 P + 200 K ) M1 (240 N + 120 P + 400 K ) Kg h-1 layout in ( RCBD) with three replication, manures and phosphate fertilizer were added two week per planting, seed of potatoes class (Desiree) planted on 22 September 2015, adding nitrogen and potassium fertilizer in three equal 21,45 and 70 days after planting, on 22 January 2016 at maturity stage, tubers from five plants in each medium rows harvested to determine total tuber yield, concentration of N, P and k in dry mass tubers were determined, Results showed a superiority treatment of poultry gave 49.94 Ton h-1 and highest concentration of N 2.06%, P 0.32% and 2.66% K, M2 treatment gave highest total tuber yield 50.20 Ton h-1 and 2.05 % N, 0.36% P and 2.54% K. interaction treatment M2O2 gave 57.22 Ton h-1 total tuber yields and 2.19%, 0.39% and 2.57% concentration of N, P and K in tubers respectively

Study the efficiency of three different methods for purification of k-casein from local goat milk.

Jasim M.S. AL-Saadi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 100-107

In this paper, we studied the efficiency of three different methods which were gel filtration chromatography, electrostatic affinity chromatography and Zittle and Custer method For the purification of k-casein from the milk of Iraqi local goats. Gel filtration chromatography and electrostatic affinity chromatography were the best methods for the purification of k-casein from goat's milk casein, while Zittle and Custer method was inefficient  in k-casein purification. Sialic acid concentration in goats k – casein purified by gel filtration, electrostatic affinity chromatography and Zittle and Custer method were 4.33, 4.20, 1.12 mg.g-1 respectively.

Characterization of celery leaves peroxidase

Tareq Nawaf Khaleel

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 108-124

This research was conducted in food sciences laboratories, college of agricultural and forestry university of  mosul and end in 2017 was aimed to isolate and characterization peroxidase enzyme from celery leaves by water extraction followed by precipitation using different concentrations of acetone ( 1:1 , 1.5:1 , 2:1 acetone : filtrate ). The best ratio was found to be 1.5:1 which gave 74,3%.
Some of the enzyme properties were studied. Optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 40C. The enzyme was found to be relatively thermostable. It  retained all initial activity after 60 minutes of incubation at 50C and 77% at 60C . However, the enzyme had lost all activity upon incubation at 80C for 60 minutes. Optimum pH of activity was 6.3 . Optimal stability was found at pH 5.5 using citrate buffer. Activation energy for the enzyme activity was 3,261k cal.mol-1, and for enzyme denaturation was 6,131k cal.mol-1. Michaelis constant (Km) and maximum velocity (Vmax) were calculated to be 20 mM and 2 µmol. Min-1, respectively using guaiacol as substrate.

Estimation of Physalin in callus, closed continuous and batch cultures of Physalis angulata L.

Muthana Muhamad AL-Mahdawe; Talfan Anad Ahmad; Dhuha Sabah Nadir

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 125-137

This experiment was conducted steroids from leaves of Physalis angulata L. at the flowering stage and from callus derived from hypocotyle stems and from the nutrient medium for closed continuous culture at age of 7, 14, 21 days and from harvested cells of batch cultures. Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Technique (HPLC), the data showed that these cultures were containing both Physalin A and B when compared with the standard samples. Physalin A and B constrations in leaves were 24.36 and 34.18 µg.ml-1 respectively and in callus culture at the age of 30 days the constrations of Physalin A and B were 287.28 and 238.47 µg.ml-1 respectively, while the samples of liquid medium of closed continuous cultures at the age 7, 14 and 21 days showed that Physalin A concetrations were 97.67, 137.88 and 85.79 µg.ml-1   respectively, whereas Physalin B constrations for the same age groups reached 103.36, 194.19 and 40.96 µg.ml-1 respectively. However, the lowest concetrations of Physalin A and B of the harvested cells from the batch cultures were 10.11 and 15.59 µg.ml-1  respectively. These data indicate that it is possible to produce Physalin A and B by using tissue cultures as a constant and continuous source for the production of secondary metabolites and considering the tissue cultures as an alternative source for the field plants.

Role of Mycorrhizal fungi in Reduction of Water Stress for Growth and yield of Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.)

Mytham Abbas Jawad AL-Karhi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 138-151

     A field experiment was conducted in the autumn season of  2017 in a field of  Hindia on the Mungbean plant Vigna radiate L. a local cultivar to study the interaction effect of both the Mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus mosseae) Under levels of irrigation periods 5, 10,15 days.
     The experiment was in the order of Split Plot with Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Irrigation treatments were randomly distributed to the main plot, while the biological fertilization treatments were distributed on secondary plates. The experiment 5 treatments resulting from treatments (Chemical fertilization), (mycorrhizal inoculation) at three periods of irrigation which are irrigation every 5 , 10 , 15 days and three replicates. Results can be summarized as follows:

The irrigation treatment of irrigation every 5 days was superior in having the highest mean of plant height, leaf area, relative water content of leaves. Which were 49.32 cm, 601.20 cm2.Plant-1, % 73.55respectively. This treatment was also given achieved the highest values of  yield and its components number of  pods per plant, number of seeds pod per, seeds yield which were 28.70 pods.Plant-1, 8.50 seed.pod-1, 3.81 tons.ha-1 respectively.
The treatment of Bio-fertilizer mycorrhiza achieved superiority for all studied traits of plant height, leaf area, relative water content of leaves which were 54.87cm , 685.8cm2.plant-1,81.51%, respectively. The treatment was also shown superiority in all yield and its components number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod , seeds yield. Amount ( 33.64 pods. Plant-1 , 8.42  seed .pod-1, 4.00 tan .ha-1) respectively, Which outperformed significantly on all Bio fertilizer transactions.

Evaluation of the quality and quantity of some local and imported honey varieties in the Middle Euphrates governorates.

Manal A. AL-Sirraj; Riyadh Ali; Razaq AL-Selawy; Haifa A. Awad; Ali A. Khdem; Zeina M. Mouhsan; Sabreen M. Lateef

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 152-165

The study was conducted to evaluate the quality of samples of different types of local honey produced from different sampling from the Middle Euphrates and imported areas at Karbala University for the period from 1 / 12-1 / 9/2017. The sample included 11 samples. The results showed variation in the percentage of humidity, (16.3% - 19.8%). It was noted that the ash content ranged from 0.2211-0.5433%. The pH values ​​of the honey samples were different, with the highest pH value in model 9 being 3.9, the lowest pH was 2.2 for Fig. 5, and the total pH scores were 22.8 mg kg for Model 9, The results showed a significant difference in the values ​​of efficacy. The results obtained from the sugars estimate showed a difference in total sucrose and glucose, with the highest value of 73.9% for model 11 while the lowest value for total sugars was 64.3% for Fig. 9. For the models given the highest values For the sample 2 was 38.9 mg  g and the lowest value of the sample No. 9 was 22.4 mg  g. The results of the detection of the enzyme calcoside oxidase showed a clear difference in the effectiveness of the enzyme was 0.99 mmol  mol  min, 11 was less effective for the enzyme in model 2 amounted to 0.22 mmol  mol  min. The results of the study within the limits of the Iraqi standard. The results show that the majority of the local models of the Iraqi standard for ash, which are not more than 0.3%, are identical to the sample 11 and 10, which are imported honey samples. The ash is below the limit permitted in the Iraqi standard, The results of the study showed that the total acidity ratio of all samples was consistent with the Iraqi standard. The results of the estimate of total sugars within the limits of the Iraqi specifications and the Constitution of the Food,

The effect discharges of Shatt al-Arab river on the total catch in Iraqi marine waters in the North - West Gulf

Audai Mohamed-Hasn Qasim

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 166-177

Iraqi marine fisheries in north-west the Gulf have been studied in order to know relationship between discharge water from shatt Al-arab river and Iraqian marine catch during 2017. The present study identified the amounts of the water from Tigris to Shatt al-Arab for the period 2014-2016.  The results showed annual discharges were 53.7, 39.1 and 49.9 m3.s-1 respectively, the total annual fishing catch recorded 5553, 3391 and 3992 ton for the years 2014, 2015 and 2016 respectively. The demo fishing recorded the highest rate during the summer months of 41.6 kg. h-1. The correlation between monthly quantities of fishing and catch per unit effort (CPUE) with the discharge of the Tigris river which entering the Shatt al-Arab was weak and positive that indicating in the presence of different seasonal effects on fisheries type. The study revealed the strongest positive correlation between total annual catch and annual water discharges expenditure, as well as confirmed the impact of water discharges, ecosystem and climate change on quantity fisheries. In addition, the study illustrated the changing in discharges followed social and economic impacts. Our needing reform in fisheries policies and planning.

Effect of replaced partial or complete fermented wheat by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, probiotic and rumen liquor with urea instead of corn on productive performance of broiler chicks

Ali Jebr Hammod; Abdullah A. Mohammed; Jaffer M. Jassim

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 178-193

    As the field experiment designed to study the replacement of wheat fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Iraqi probiotic and rumen liquor with urea partially or completely replace corn in diets on the productive performance of broiler chickens as well as digest it conducted a second test after the end of the second field experiment. In this experiment, A 450 chicks were used and distributed over 10 treatments each with three replicates (15 chicks for replicate) treatments are: T1 and T2 partial and complete replacing of wheat without urea instead of corn, respectively (controls); T3 and T4 partial and complete replacing of wheat with urea instead of corn, respectively (controls); T5 and T6 partial and complete replacing of wheat fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae with urea instead of corn, respectively; T7 and T8  partial and complete replacing of wheat fermented by Iraqi probiotic with urea instead of corn, respectively; T9 and T10 partial and complete  replacing of wheat fermented by rumen liquor with urea instead of corn, respectively. The current studies included the following results: The results showed that there were significant increases in final live body weight, total weight gain of T5, and accumulative feed intake for the T6 group, while T10 recorded the best conversion ratio, also T9 and T10 recorded the best economic figure.

Comparatives between four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in some antioxidants content at flower stage

Muthik Abd Muslim Guda; Aseel Fadel Ayoub

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 194-206

The purpose of this study is to identify and distinguish four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown in Iraq, which are more resistant to stress  by using the measurement of some antioxidants   content as a comparative guide to the success of varieties (amber 33, Jasmine, ferrite and black bean). The field study was conducted at the rice growing center in Mashkhab in Al-Najaf province in 2016.  using RCBD in split plots arrangement  with three replicates. The study included four varieties of rice   to measure  total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, b, carotene  ,proline , activity  of Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) ,protease (pro) and total protein .
   The results showed an increase in total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, b, and carotene, and the high activity of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the black bean> amber33> jasmine, and finally the Ferrite cultivars respectively. The amount of Proline shows superiority of Amber 33 > jasmine >black bean > Ferrite, respectively. The protein did not show any significant differences between varieties. While Protease activity decreased in the black bean < amber33 < jasmine < Ferrite cultivars respectively. From the above results it can be used total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a, b, carotene, proline and the activates  of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) enzymes as indicators to select the most successful  to withstand stressful environmental conditions.

Effect of adding poultry manure and spraying organic acids on yield and some components of potato ( salanum tuberosuml.)

Mohammed Sallal AL-Tememe; Dhay Mohammed AL-Jadiri

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 207-224

A field experiment was carried out in one of farms in Babylon distract Abi Garaq of a 10 am soil texture , to study the effect of organic fertilization application ( poultry wastes) and foliar application of humic and folric acid )and interaction between them on the growth and yield of Potato . This experiment included three levels of organic fertilizer ( poultry wastes ) at 0 , 5 , 10 Ton.ha-1 . First factors named F0 , F1 , F2 respectively , while the second factors of foliar application of organic acids ( humic and folvic acid ) named as S0 , S1 , S2 at 0 , 5 , 10 ml.L-1 respectively at a total of nine treatment in three application of a total experimental units of 27 . They experiment was carried out under RCBD , Potato tubers class Burren were planted on 16 / 1 / 2017 .At maturity ,  total percentage of proteins and starch of the total yield and tubers number at the end of season were measured. Data was statistically analyzed and means were compared according  to least signification different test at 0.05 level of probability . Result show :- Organic fertilization ( poultry wastes ) F2 was supervisor as compared to F1and F0 in plant  total tubers yield 28.70 Mg ha-1 , number of tubers 6.96 tuber plant-1 , total tuber dry weight percentage 28.70%.Organic fertilization of poultry wastes , treatment F2 was superior when compared to F1 and F0by giving the highest percentage of protein and starch tubers at 10.19% and 11.0 % respectively . Foliar application of organic acid ( humic and folivc ) have shown super iorvity in studied  porameters of  F2 treatment when compared to S1, S0 treatment where it caused a signification increase in  total tubers yield , number of tubers , at highest values of means at  25.29 Mg ha-1 , 7.82 tuber . per 17.73 %  of each respectively .Organic acids foliar application treatment S2 was superior to S1 , S0 by giving highest means of protein and starch percentage in tubers at 9.56 , 11.71% respectively . F2S2interaction treatment has given the highest values of studies parameter where they were  10.31 % , 12.43 % of protein and starch percentage in tubers respectively . 4. 30.73 M gm ha-1 of total yield of tubers , 8.83 tuber plant-1 .

Detection of Indole Acetic Acid and Gibberelic acid in culture filtrate of local plant growth promoting fungi

Azher Hameed Altaie; Sabah Lateef Alwan

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 225-239

The study aimed at investigating the ability of local isolates of plant growth promoting fungi: A-7 (Aspergillus fumigatus) , AD-1 (A. niger) and  T-113 isolates of Trichoderma hamatum, to production of plant hormones, indole acetic acid (IAA) and Gabriellene (GA3) .The study was conducted in the laboratories of the Faculty of Agriculture - University of Kufa to evaluated  ability of these fungi to produce plant hormones in their filtrate in shaking and static incubation.
 
    It was found that three fungal A-D-1, A-7 and T-113 produced IAA and GA3hormones in both shaking (120 r/min) and static incubation for 5, 10 and 15 days respectively at 28 +2 C. the fungus A-D-1 has a highest average for filtrate content of IAA 153.3 mg / L, followed by A-7 with 137.8 mg /L, while isolation T-113- has lowest average 90 mg / L in shaking incubation conditions. In static incubation condition, fungus A-7 has highest average of filtrate content of IAA hormone 1211 mg / L, followed by A-D-1 221 mg / L, while the isolate T-113- has lowest average with 118 mg / L.
 
    Production of GA3 hormone identify through fungal filtrate content in both shaking 120 r/min and static incubation for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively at 28 +2 C. the fungus A-7 has a highest average of filtrate content of GA3 hormone with 2.018 mg / L, followed by A-D-1 with an average 0.742 mg / L, while isolate T-113 has lowest average 0.698 mg / L after 21 days in shaking incubation conditions. In static incubation condition, isolate A-7 has highest average of filtrate content of GA3hormone 2.433 mg / L, followed by isolate A-D-1 0.477 mg /l, while the isolate T-113 has lowest average 0.443 mg / L.

The effect of wheat and barley type and method of exposure in response khabra beetle to microwave radiation.

Emad Qaseem AL-Ebady; Mohammad Ablrahman Sdeek AL-Barwary

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 240-254

The results of the study effect of host food type hard wheat (Smito) , soft wheat (Tamoz 2) , white barley and local black barley with two application method of exposure ( insect without food and insect with food) to microwave power at 200, 500 and 800 watt at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 second as exposure period on the grain beetle (Khabra)  T. granarium . The results showed that the killing percentage the Khabra beetle adults ,  was increased by increasing of microwave level and exposure period when reared on four type of host food for insect without food 53.49 , 43.99 , 27.99% of microwave level and 21.94 , 30.27 , 38.61 , 51.39 and 66.94% for exposure period . The results also showed that the mortality of Khabra adults with food was 21,49 , 61.16 and 72.16% for microwave level and 31.11 , 34.16 , 58 , 64.72 and 69.44% for exposure period respectively .The results also showed that the mortality  of Khabra adults to the microwave irradiation with the host food was significantly higher than their mortality  when exposured to the microwave irradiation without host food as 51.60 and 41.83% . The results showed that the lethal dose value for adults mixed without host food ranged between 503-892 watt at 51-102 second , while, the lethal dose value of adults with food ranged between 340-442 watt at 29-41 second .

Effect of levels and times of foliar application of Nano fertilizer Super micro plus on concentration of some micronutrients in dry matter and yield of Rice (Oriza sativa L.) .

Raheem A .H . Jassim

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 255-264

A field experiment was conducted in Al – Najaf Governorate during summer season 2017 to study the effect of foliar application of  Nano fertilizer with three levels ( 0 & 1 & 2) gmL-1  and times application at ( tillering stage , booting stage , flowering stage ) on concentration of  Fe , Zn , Cu , Mn and yield of  rice (Oriza sativa L.) Amber 33 variety . according to RCBD with three replicates was designed . results showed Superior the level 2g L-1  Nano fertilizer on concentration of  iron , zinc , copper  and manganese in plant ( 104.56 & 23.02 &16.67 & 60.23 ) mg kg-1 dry matter and grain yield ( 5.40 Mega gm h-1  ) .Superior time of adding Nano fertilizer on flowering stage in concentration of iron and manganese in plant ( 94.11 & 53.18 ) mg kg-1 dry matter .Superior the  inter action between levels and times of foliar application on concentration of  iron , zinc , manganese and copper in plant  in level 2g L-1  and flowering stage ( 109 & 23.7 & 61.63 & 17 ) mg kg-1 dry matter and grain yield ( 5.47 Mega gm h-1  ).

A study of the parasitoid soft scale insect ( Exaeretopus tritici (Williams)(Coccidae: Homoptera) infecting wheat( Choreia maculate)

Suaad Abdullah

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 265-275

        This study was conducted on gregarious endoparasitic Choreia maculate (Order: Hymenoptera) which was parasites on the adult females of soft scale insects Exaeretopus tritici (Williams) which was attacked the wheat crop. The average percentage of the parasite and  un parasite females reached 83.99 and 61.01 %, the adults had succeeded and they secreted a cotton egg sac and deposited a few number of eggs with an average of 11.2 egg and the average percentage of the hatching eggs was 8.6 % compared to parasite females, which normally deposited a large number of eggs with an average of 402.6 egg, The highest percentage of the hatching eggs was 83.8 % on the one hand، on the other hand، a large number of the un parasite females was 657 female which secreted a cotton egg sac and left their host plant toward the soil surface، searching for cracks or any shelter for eggs deposition in a cotton egg sac at soil depth ranged between (0-5) cm، with an average of 26 egg and the average percentage of the hatching eggs was 13 %, compared with the females which were found in the soil depth ranged between (20-25) cm with an average of 5 females. M-2 which deposited a few number of eggs reached  2 eggs. Female-1، the lowest percentage of egg hatching, reached 2%.

Effect of addition of Humic acid and seaweed extract and foliar application in some characteristics on fruit growth of olive ( Olea europaea L.) c.v Bashiqa

Zeinab Mohammed Alywe AL-Tememe; Harith M. Aziz AL-Tamimi; Alaa A. Ali AL-Asedy; Alaa Taleb AL-Amirry

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 276-288

The experiment was conducted in accordance with randomized complete design C. R. D in the private orchard in Fadhiliya village / Bashiqa district, Naynwa governorate during the growing season of 2012, to study the effect of treatment of olive trees Olea europaea L.  by different concentrations of Humus and extract seaweed, which included experience using Humus addition three levels 0, 4 and 8 ml.L-1 and seaweed extract(Seaforcel) three levels 0, 4 and 8 ml.L-1 sprayed trees until all the moisture from seaweed extract three times during the growing season, first in 18/ 3 and 18/4 in the second and third in the 18/5/2012. All measurements were taken at mid-October 2012.
 Results showed superiority concentration 8m.L-1 Humus addition treatment gave increscent in fruit weight, length, flesh weight and N concentration. The effect of the interaction has exceeded the treatment of interaction between 8 ml. L-1Humus and 8 ml. L-1 seaweed extract in both the fruit weight and % of total nitrogen, while the treatment of the mixture was 4 ml. L-1Humus and 8 ml. L-1. A seaweed extract in the fruit-length ratio, while the interaction treatment exceeded 8 ml. L-1. Humus and 0 ml. L-1 seaweed extract in the average of flesh weight of fruits and excelled the treatment of interaction 8 ml. L-1 Humus and 4 ml. L-1 extract of seaweed in both of % oil in fruits and % of total protein.

A study of the white mold disease of eggplant caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and it’s control

Ali Kareem Al-Taae; Lbna Laith Malallah

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 289-303

The results of isolation and diagnosis of white mold disease of eggplant showed that the causal agent was Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary. Two isolates of the pathogen were obtained the first was SSB that isolated from greenhouses in Bashika area and the second was SSC from greenhouses of college of agriculture and forestry. The first isolate was more aggressive than the second one,through the test of the pathogenicity for the two isolates of  white mold SSB, and SSC. Infection symptoms appeared as a white mycelium growth. Its appearance like a cotton in an infection sites and then expanded to included large parts of infection area. In the infections areas the leaves were seen in touch with the infected branches, and attacking mold was also seen on the infected branch  as mycelium growth observed on the surface of plant. Results of the field control for the white mold, showed the superiority of the T. v.  biological agent over the rest of the treatments in terms of the average length of the infected area in the main stem, as it prevented the emergence of any infection on the stem and which was not different from the treatment using the Topsin fungicide which resulted in the decrease of the infection to 0.03 cm . The biological agent T.h.   came in the second place and was 1.96 cm compared to the control treatment which was 11.33 cm .

A Study of the Effects of some Water Plant Extracts on the killing Rates of the Two insects Trogoderma granarium Everts Dermestidae : Coleoptera and Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) Silvanidae : Coleoptera

Nada Sabeeh Othman

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 304-310

This study was conducted to show the effects of some water plant extracts of leaves of the plants, Myrtle Myrtus communis L. , Rue Ruta graveolens L. , Rosemary Rosemarinus officanalsi , Basil Ocimum basilicum and  Mint Mentha piperita L. with the concentrations 1, 4, 7, 9 % on calculating the death rates of both Trogoderma granarium Everts and the adults  of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.). It was found that the concentrations 7% and 9% of M. communis and the concentration 9% of R. graveolens gave the highest average of death rate for the larvae of T. granarium which was 100%. The concentration 7% of  R. graveolens extract and 9% of M. piperita gave high death averages to be 96.67 and 93.33% respectively. The relative average was 1000 for R. graveolens and was 285 for M. piperita. The insect T. granarium recorded the concentrations 7% and 9% for the extracts of M. communis , R. graveolens and M. piperita with high death average rates to be 100%. M. piperita and R. graveolens gave the highest efficiency rates which were 883 and 662, while the extract of R. officanalsi recorded a lowest death rate to be 100 % for each of the two insects T. granarium and O. surinamensis

Seasonal presence of the two species of white flies Acaudaleyrodes ra-chipora ( Singh ) and Aleurolobus marlatti (QUAN) (Hemip-tera:Aleurodidae)on the christ-thorn Zizyphus spina Christi.

Sahar Muhassin Al-Khafaji; Nawars Wleed Tarash

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 311-318

This study was conducted in the Baghdad university/ college of Agriculture  in Al –Jadriya   district to determined the population density and infection percentage of the two species of white flies Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (Singh.) and Aleurolobus marlatti( QUAN.) on the Christ-thorn plant during 4/1/2017 to5/5/2017.
Results showed that the highest infection for the white fly A. rachipora was 58.88%  in the begining of January, while the lowest infection was 24.88% in the late April.Whereas no significant differences were observed among the three levels( top ,middle and lower ) was 36.63% ,39.03% and 41.13% respectively. The highest average of the population density was 5 Nymph/leaf which occurred in the first of January,in the middle part of the plant ,while the top and lower part of the plant, reached 3 and 2 N/L respectively.In the frist of May reduced average to1 N / L .
For Whitefly A. marlatti,The highest infection was 65.66 and 72.33 % in the mid of January and February respectively.While,the lowest infection occurred in the first ofApril and May, was 30.88 and 34.44% respectively.The highest average of population density was reached  6 n /l in the top and middle part of the plant.
The above results revealed that the pests were found in large number as anymphal stage , on the  leaves of plant,in the begining of January,  then they complete its life cycle,when the suitable environmental condition was offered .

The impact evaluation of thermal Al-Musayyib electric power station waste in soil and plant pollution in some heavy metals

Abbas Sebur Serwan AL-Wotaify; Marwa Ahmed Saeed Al-Msafree

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 319-329

The research  included study of soil heavy metals content on  effect of the Electricity Almusayab Thermal Station and comparative soil  of Alexandria city in Babylon  Governorate between the longitude °32 77' 811'' N and the latitudes °44  29' 00'' E. In contamination soil was content of Ti: 1.00 to 9.84.00, Co: 20.40-42.00, As: 10.20-12.20, Se: 0.50 and Zn: 150.50-612.00mg kg-1. While in comparative soil was content of these heavy minerals: 7.96, 17.10, 11.70, 0.50 and 155.50 mg kg-1 respectively. These resulted in an increase of 377.70-739.00 mg kg-1 for Ti in the dry matter of the leaves and roots of the rest crop in the affected soils by the residues and between 282.30-343.30mg kg-1 in comparative soil. While Co was 3.90mg kg-1 in dry matter content for both affected and unaffected soil, so As was 0.20-1.40 and 0.10-0.70mg kg-1, as well as Se and Zi were 0.50 0.70-5.10 and 1.40 mg kg-1 respectively in the dry matter at the soil affected by wastes and the Comparative soils.
 
Through soil content of the heavy metals under study, the enrichment factor in affected soil by the residues for Ti was 0.01-12.21,  Co: 0.18-2.19 , As: 0.86-1.01, Se:0.88-1.06 , and within the minimum metal level. While the enrichment factor in the dry matter of the leaves of the leaves and roots was 1.10-2.62 for Ti, Co: 1.00, As, Se and Zi were 2.00, 1.00, and 0.50-3.64 respectively. The contamination factor of Ti was 0.01 to 1.24, Co: 1.9-2.46, As: 0.87-1.04, Se: 1.00 and Zi:0.97-3.94 in the affected soil by the residues, which is at a moderate level. In the vegetative parts it was 411.10-2.62, 1.00, 2.00, 1.00, and 50.50-4.64 for those metals respectively.
 
The plant concentration factor of metals in leaves was 38.58 for Ti, Co: 0.12, As: 0.02, Se: 1.00 and Zi: 0.00. And it was 75.49, 0.12, 0.11, 1.00 and 0.03 respectively in the dry matter for the roots of the grown leguminous plant on study soils.
 

The Effect of Partial Dose and Treatment Area in the Activity of Some Insecticides on Larvae and Adult of Confused Flour Beetles Tribolium confusum Duval (Coleoptera; Tenebrionidae)

Wafa Abid Yehya AL-Raho

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 330-340

The results of studying partial dose and treatment area showed the effect of insecticides: zorosuper Ec (36gm/liter). Avaunt Sc (150gm/liter) and Omite Ew (57%) in the mortality percentage of larvae and adults of confused flour beetles and also showed the superiority of insecticides zorosuper and Avaunt on the insecticide Omite in giving 100% mortality percentage of larvae. while the insecticide Avaunt gave the maximum mortality percentage of adults 100%. Results of partial dose of the studied insecticides showed that there is a significant effect when treating with 3/4 dose (0.75 ml/liter) by using Zorosuper on larvae. where it gave 99% mortality rate. 86.67% for each Avaunt and Omite. respectively. Concerning studying the effect of partial surface treatment. zorosuper insecticide gave the maximum mortality percentage of adults reached 99% when treating the surface completely, where it gave 92.33% mortality rate percentage on larvae when treating the surface completely.
 

Effect of biofertilizers on yield and quality properties of wheat ( Triticum aestivium L.)

Khamees Habeeb Mutlag; Nagaam Abdulrazaq Mshemish; Fadhel S. AL – Kinany; Khlood Abd – Alelah Mohammad; Safaa Abdulrahem; Hazim Jasim Abdulwahab; Issa Saleh Mahdi; Mostafa Talib Mohamad

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 341-351

 Field experiment at the agricultural research directorate / Ministry of science and technology was conducted using CRD design with different combinations of biofertilizers  of Rhizobium spp. and Azospirillum brasilense  with 50 of chemical fertilizers for wheat to reduce chemical fertilization which are costly and create environmental proplems. Four treatments of the combinations of bacteria and treatment of control )100% chemical fertilization( were used.
 
        Results showed that the best treatment of biofertilizer was the combination of Azospirillum brasilense and Rhizobium leguminosarum RL2 ( Az. + RL2 ) recorded plant height ( 90.6 cm ) spike no.( 362.6 / m² ) comparing with control treatment ( 100 % chemical fertilization ) which gave  87.8 cm and 357.1 /m² respectively .In the same manner yield results showed that the same treatment improved yield to 4.42 ton .hr-1 comparing with control which gave 4.34 ton. hr-1. 
 
Results showed also that the combination of Az.+RL2 was the best treatment for enhancing wheat quality parameters recorded such as protein 12.84 % , ash 0.67% and dry glutein 9.44 % in comparison with the control ( 100% chemical fertilization)  which were 11.76 % , 0.52 % ,9.39 % respectvelly.

The Influence of different inoculum levels of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in growth and biochemical parameters of Olive nurseries Olea europaea L.

Waref M. H. Ismail; Asmaa M. Abd alrasool; Zeinab A. M. AL-Tememe

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 352-364

Effects of Root Knot Nematode population at different density levels on olives were also tested. Infection signs and indicators were increased as inoculation level increases. Inoculation level at 3000 egg.pot-1 resulted in the highest number of galls(42.66 .2g.root-1), females (44.33 .2 g. root-1), egg masses (42 .2 g. root-1), mobile stages (males and juveniles) (43.66 .100g soil-1), population density (57000 individuals), reproduction factor (19.00%) and root fresh weight(13.47 g). Plant growth and chemical parameters were decreased as inoculation level increases especially at the 3000 egg / pot and resulted in the lowest values of shoot length (26.33 cm), root length (27 cm), shoot fresh weight (11.89 g), leaf area (3.10 cm2), nitrogen level (1.59), protein percentage (10.02%), chlorophyll content of a ,b and total (0.057, 0.028 and 0.085 mg.g-1 fresh weight, respectively).
 

Effect of Nutration, Substrate and the Removal of Runners upon Strawberry Fruit Content of Phytochemicals Relevant to Human Health

Nazik Haki Khalil; Fadhil H. Al-Sahaf; Waleed A. Al-Rawi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 365-383

An experiment carried out in an unheated Plastichouse unit of the Department of Horticulture / College of Agriculture / University of Baghdad for the years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013, to increase the fruit content of phytochemicals relevant to human health, of Strawberry Fragaria ananassa Duch. Var. Festival, by using Soilless culture system in organic media.
The experiment carried out according to Nested-Factorial Experiment design with three replicates, and means were compared by L.S.D test at 5% level .It included 16 treatment to study the effect of three factors, removal of runners by dividing plants to two grops B (runners were removed from plants) and C (without removal), the second factor is the type of agricultural substrate, 1 (Perlite + Peat moss 1:1standard), 2 (Perlite + Peat moss + Sheep manure 1:1:1), 3 (Perlite + Peat moss + Caw manure 1:1:1) and 4 (Perlite + Peat moss + Poultry manure 1:1:1), and the third factor is either using mineral nutrition solution particularly for the production of strawberries in subtropical conditons in soilless system (WN) or without using nutrition (WoN).
Results showed that organic matter significantly affect fruit content of phytochemical relevant to human health, such as anthocyanins in WoNC4 and WNB2 were (54.44 & 52.46) mg.100g-1, ascorbic acid in WNB4 and WNB2 were (128.3 & 180.8) mg, β-carotene in WNC4 and WoNC4 were (33.70 & 34.06)µg.100g-1 and folate (B9) in WNB4 were (394.7 & 367.6) µg. .100g-1 . WoNB1 fruits had the lowest concentration of nitrate was (13.47 & 4.38) mg.100g-1D.W, while WoNB1 and WoNC1 had the lowest concentration of oxalat were (0.957 & 0.110) mg.100g-1F.W in the two years respectively.

Response of Olive seedlings that grown in desert lands to ground fertilization with Orgevit and spraying with Reef PlantCare

Shahbal Abd Ulhkem Zeaili Al-Marsoomi; Ahmed Fatkhan Zabar AL-Dulaimy

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 384-397

 A study was conducted in one of the olive orchard at Heet city of Al-anbar province during the season 2014 to investigate the feeding by industrial chicken manure (Orgevit) and spraying with the Reef PlantCare  on some growth traits and chemical content of olive seedlings Ashrasi cultivar. Thirty sex identical seedlings as possible were chosen at age of two years. The Orgevit was applied in the middle of March, while the spraying with Reef PlantCare  was at monthly intervals, starting from the 1st of April to October the 1st.  A factorial experiment was carried out in R.C.B.D. design included 12 treatments repeated three times,  using one tree for each experimental unit, The first factor (Orgevit  manure) was used in three levels (0 , 0.5 and 1 kg.seedling-1) presented with symbols (P0, P1 and P2), whereas the second factor was spraying with the Reef PlantCare in four levels (0 , 1 , 1.5 and 2 ml.l-1 ), mentioned as (V0, V1, V2 and V3).
 
Applying the Orgevit manure showed significantly affected in all of the studied traits of vegetative growth and chemical component of olive seedlings, especially the highest level used (P2) which showed the best values for traits (leaf area, chlorophyll content in leaves and carbohydrates, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium percentages in branches) which reached (6.96cm2 , 83.32 spad unit, 7.95%, 1.64%, 0.40% and 0.89%) respectively. spraying with Reef PlantCare was affected significantly especially with the treatment (V3) that gave the best significant effect for the traits (chlorophyll content in leaves, carbohydrates and potassium percentages in branches) which gave (79.51 spad unit, 7.67% and 0.86%, respectively).  The interaction between two study factors reached a significant  level in all of traits and the highest effect of interactions was depended on the treatment type, whereas the lowest values showed at the control treatment.

Effect of the gibberellic acid , benzyl adenine and exposure period of ultrasound waves on seed germination and seedling growth of mesquite (Prosopis cineraria L.) .

Sabah Gazi Shareef; Chaseb Khazaal Jawad Alkeliby; Iman Mohammad Abbas Alsafar; Roaa Mahdi Hamzah

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 398-421

The experiment was carried out at Collage of Agriculture / University of Kerbala in mid of April 2016 to the March 2017 according to the design of random complete block (RCBD). The purpose of this article is to study the effect of concentration of gibberellic acid (0,150 and 300 mg . L-1), Benzyl adenine acid concentration (0,50 and 100 mg . L-1) and the exposure period to ultrasound waves (0 and 120 min) on seed germination and seedling growth of mesquite (Prosopis cineraria L.). The results showed that the treatment of gibberellic acid (300 mg . L-1) was attained higher significantly value in all studied traits compared to the control treatment. The percentage increment of germination seedlings at this concentration was 41.74 % . Secondly, the treatment of benzyl adenine acid (100 mg. L-1) was effected highly significant in all studied properties except for relative moisture content. While, the ultrasound treatment (120 minutes) gave higher significant value. The values were in ratio of germination, stem diameter and total chlorophyll compare to the control treatment. The percentage increment were 26.01 , 12.91 and 28.94 % respectively. Thirdly, the interaction treatment between concentration of gibberellic acid (300 mg. L-1) and benzyl adenine acid (100 mg. L-1) gave highly values for all the properties which  have been studied, compare to control treatment. In addition, the interaction treatments between gibberellic acid (300 mg. L-1) and ultrasound (120 minutes) have been given highly significant values for all properties studied. Excepting plant height and stem diameter compared to control treatment. Finally, the trible interaction results among gibberellic acid (300 mg. L-1) , benzyl adenine acid (100 mg. L-1) and ultrasound (120 minutes) showed high significant values for all the properties studied, excepting relative moisture content for plant leaves compared with control treatment and the value of  rate    seeds germination gave 73.33 % compared to control treatment 20.00 %.

Effect of seed soaking and foliar application with Bilirubin on growth and yield wheat

Adel Yousif Nasserallah; Intsar Hadi Al- Hilfy; Najat Hussein Zeboon

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 422-430

A field experiment was conducted during  2012 – 2013 winter seasons at the Experimental Farm , Dep. of Field Crop, College of Agriculture University of Baghdad  to study effect of  Bilirubin on some growth , yield and quality of wheat traits var Abu – Ghraib – 3, in  RCBD with three replicate , the experiment  involved seven  treatment :control, seed soaking with 0.25,0.50 and 1ml L-1 concentration , shoot spraying foliar with 0.25, 0.50 , and 1ml L-1 concentration in tillering and flowering stages .The results show that soaking treatment with 1ml L-1 concentration was superior on most of growth , yield ( plant high ,flag leaf area ,number of tillers ,biological yield ,number of grains,grain1000 weight ,grain yield and increasing ( 1.08, 2.45 , 47.5, 35.13, 22.78 , 0.57, 28.32 ) % contrast with control treatment respectively , while foliar treatment with 0.25ml L-1 on number of spike ,protein and gluten ratio was 730.0 spike m-2 ,12.44% and 32.15%  contrast with control treatment which gave 495.0 spike m-2 , 9.87% and 28.13 %

Effect of Nutrition and Growth Regulators on Growth of Oat

Raam Shakir Mahmood AL- Zubadie; Mufaq Abdul Razza AL-Naqeeb

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 431-444

Afield experiment was condected at the  experimential farm of field crop Dept. college of Agriculture university of  Baghdad  Abu-Ghraib  to study the effect of NPK and gibberellen( foliar application) on growth and seed yield of Oat during 2013-2014 season . R.C.B.D design  was used with four replications., and two factors ,first was NPK application in four levels NPK1(K 200+P1000+N2500) Mg L-1 ,NPK2(K 300+P1500+N3500) Mg L-1 , NPK3(K 400+P2000+N4500) Mg L-1 and the control(water spraying) .The second was application of gibberellen in four levels0, 200,300,400 Mg L-1were applied when the plant heights were 50 cm average.  The second facter application of gibberellen in four levels 200, 300,400 Mg L-1   and  the control o were applied when the plant heights were 50 cm average. The results showed  that :  NPK3 gave the highest plant height 135.69cm and  branches numbers   503.62 branch m-2  and numbers of spike 472.70 spike m-2. NPK3 gave  the highest green forage 26.56 Mg ha-1  while the grain yield application of NPK2 gave higher grain yields of oat 4.61 Mg ha-1 .                                                                                                            
 
The higher grain yield oat 4.44 Mg ha-1  in application of GA2.There were   significant interaction  between NPK and gibberellen The interaction between NPK3 and GA3 gave highest studied triats while the interaction between  NPK2 and GA3 gave the highest grian yield (5.69) Mg ha-1.                         
 
Key word:Oat,NPK,GA3,numbers of spike,green forage.

Effect of Naphthalen Acetic Acid and Brassinostroids on Propagating of Strawberry plants CV. Alboin.

Hussain Nory Rasheed AL-Karawi; Walleed Abdul Gani Ahmad AL-Rawi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 445-458

This study was carried out in a plastic house of a Palm Date Research Unit-Agricultural College-University of Baghdad, during season 2013-2014, to study the effect of naphthalene acetic acid(NAA) and Brassinosteroids (BL) and their interaction to the strawberry vegetative growth. The study include 12 treatments, to spray strawberry's plant with three levels from the NAA (0, 25,50,100)mg.l-1. And three levels from the BL  ( 0, 0.10, 0.05 )mg.l-1. A factorial experiment carried out at randomized completed blocked design (RCBD) with three replicates. The results were revealed the plants were significantly increased in plant height, length of runner, crown, s number, at 100 mg.l -1 levels of NAA. While the treatment (50mg.l-1) give runner ,s number and number of new plant per runner. The additions of BL were increased in plant height and crown diameter, at 0.1mg.l-1level,s of BL . While the treatment (0.05mg.l-1) give significantly increased in length of runner, crowns number's, runner numbers and plants number per runner. The interaction of two van able were significant for all the studies traits

Use of water extract of common reed and johnsen grass flowers to increase yield and storage life of oyster mushroom

Adeeba Najam Rustum; Zina M. Abdul-Qader; Sajid Odah Mohammed

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 459-471

Experiments were conducted in the mushroom project, dept. of Hort , college of Agric , Univ. of Baghdad from 2/2/2012 to 25/6/2013 . Pure culture of pleurotus ostreatus (Jaq. Fr.) was imported from Jordan , Plastic bags were filled with 1 KG of moist and sterilized wheat straw and 50 g of mushroom spawn was added to each bag, the bags were transferred to the incubation room at 25 +- 2 C for one month , Humidity was raised to 80-90% and light to 400 lux , Water extract of common reed and Johnson grass flowers of the following concentrations : 0.0% or 5% or 10% or 20% of one of the two extracts was added to the plastic bag after the pin heads formation .Fruiting bodies were harvested , dried and used to determine the concentration of the protein and phenolic compounds , the results showed that the fresh and the dry yield and the biological efficiency (BE) increased significantly with the increase of the concentration of the water extract of Johnson grass flowers , while increasing the concentration of the water extract of the common reed flowers to 20% reduced the fresh and the dry yield and the BE significantly compared with 10% and 5% concentrations , the best result was obtained from using10% of common reed flowers extract compared with all other treatments , the highest percentage of dry matter was obtained from using 10% of both kind of extracts , the concentrations of the phenolic compounds and the protein increased with the increase of both kinds of extracts ,the best concentration of the phenolic compounds and the protein was obtained from using 20% of common reed flowers extracts, the concentration of the protein and the phenolic compounds decreased during cold storage

Evaluation Fusarium oxysporum f. sp lycopersici isolates response to tomato plants debris

Ali Fadil Merjan; Jawad Kadhium Aljenabi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 472-485

The study was aimed to survey the dispersal of fusarium wilt in Babylon, Karbala and Najaf governorates, diagnose causes agent and detection of the effect of organic extracts of tomato debris Effect of organic on the cellular content of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici isolates.The results showed that the prevalence of the disease in the three governorates ranged from 37 - 43% , morphological  and molecular examination of showed the phenotypic and molecular examination of Fusarium oxysporumf.sp. lycopersici isolates, differentiated effects of organic extracts were found, non-decomposed extracts stimulated biomass growth and molecular they have genomic effect on DNA of isolates by using P1 primer  this effect could reflected on protein composition and enzymatic production and in consequences of these isolates.
 
One other hand, the organic extract had a substantial effects on fungal genomes concentration of F4, F8 and F17 isolates.

Effect of tenderization with different solutions on some quality and sensory properties of old domestic duck meat

Mohammed A. Al-Mehdawy; Hussain M. Al-Dhalimi

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 486-498

A total of 24 Iraqi domestic ducks males Anas boschas, 20 months age, from 27/3/2016 until 10/4/2016, This study aimed of using some solutions, vinegar, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate (1% concentration) to improve the specific and sensory properties of old domestic ducks meat. The birds were brought from the research station and the agricultural experiments. Birds had brourht from Agriculture and researches center, were distributed on four experimental treatments with 6 birds per treatment:The treatments were as follows T1: control treatment (soaking with distilled water). T2: tenderized by 1%vinegar.. T3: tenderized by 1% salt (sodium chloride)T4: tenderized by 1%sodium bicarbonate. After slaughtering the birds, the carcasses were kept in the refrigerator for 24 hours, the chest and thigh cuts were separated from the carcasses, were frozen at a temperature of ± 2 ± 18 for a period of 24 hours in polyethylene bags to analysis. Results of study showed a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the pH of the breast, thigh and drumstick cuts when using vinegar treatment and no there was significant differences in the percentage of drip, cooking and thawing loss among treatments and there was a significant increase (P≤0.05) of the vinegar treatment in sensory properties such as tenderness, juicy, flavor, texture, taste and general acceptance of the chest, thigh and drum stick compared to sodium salt and sodium bicarbonate, which a significantly exceeded (P≤0.05) in the studied sensory traits compared to the control treatment

Sensitivity of some palm cultivars Phoenix dactylifera for the infection of scale insect Parlatoria blanchardi (Targ.) On the palm with an eval-uation of the efficiency of the seven-point Ladybird Coccinella sep-tempunctata L. in Al Muthanna Governorate

Alaa Hussein Abed Al Hamadani

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 498-508

The search carried out in 2017 , a field stud was conducted in the region of ​​Al-Suhour / Al-Rumaitha district / Muthanna province to calculate the sensitivity of some palm varieties to the infection of the scale insect  Parlatoria Blanchardi , and laboratory study to evaluate the efficiency of the seven-point coccinella septempunctata against the different roles of the insect , The results of the field study to palm cultivars studied of ten palm cultivars which as follows (Shweithi, Prem, Gozzy, Shukar, Omrani, Maktoom, Khadraoui, Balga, Derri and Zahdi) showed that the two varieties Shweithi and Prem were more sensitive to infection to insect . It has reached the final rate of insects per 1 cm2/ Cousins and for the three months 22.62 and 17.92 for the two varieties above, respectively. While the derri and zahdi were less susceptible to insect infection. It has reached the final rate for the three months was 4.75 and 3.75 insect .1 cm-2 Cousins respectively. The results of the statistical analysis showed significant differences in the susceptibility of these varieties to infection of the insect, this indicates that there is a dietary preference for the insect among these varieties. The results of the laboratory study showed that the different larvae ages of the seven-point C. septempunctata had fed on all the roles of the white scale insect P. blanchardi and that the total number of eggs, nymphs and insect adults was 1049.7, 349.3 and 109 respectively. The fourth-year larvae of the Ladybird were more efficient than other ages , The results also indicated that Ladybird adults were fed to all insect roles and the average number of eggs, nymphs and predatory adults  reached 541, 291.7 and 131, respectively. The results showed that larvae and Ladybird adults were highly efficient in reducing  the numerical density for all The insect roles,  and its Predatory efficiency on insect eggs and nymphs were more than adults.

Effect of bio fertilization to increase efficiency of using chemical fertilizer to Corn crop (Zea mays L.) grown in gypsiferous soil.

khalaf Mahmoud Alkhalifa; Mothafer A. Almosuly; Mazin F. Said

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 509-525

  A field experiment global was conducted to study the effect of bio fertilization to increase the chemical fertilizer use efficiency for corn crop using bio fertilizer Agrosoil-N of bacteria  genus Azotobacter and Agrosoil-P contain Bacillus at levels (without , Azotobacter , Bacillus and both together) with two sources of phosphorus as superphosphate and fine rock phosphate at levels  0 , 42 and 84  Kg P.ha-1  with urea source of nitrogen at levels  0 , 138 and 276  Kg N.ha-1. Potassium sulphate fertilizer was applied for all treatments at one level of  120 Kg K2O.ha-1. The experiment was conducted using  RCBD  with three replicates. Means were tested with (L.S.D) at 5% . Results showed that the application of bio fertilizer as single and dual inoculation for two sources phosphate significant increases of all studied parameters were increasing highed  in dual inoculation. Combination of bio fertilizer with 42 Kg P.ha-1 recorded  plant height  179,94 cm , leaf area  501.85 cm2 and grain yield  7.421 ton. ha-1  and this dose not differ significant of 84 Kg P.ha-1without inoculation. This interaction gave increasing of  N , P and K in grain 54,43% , 169.93% and 15.60% respectively .  The dual inoculation with 42 Kg P.ha-1  super phosphate and 84 Kg P.ha-1   rock phosphate higher means in Fe , Zn concentration gave  107.40 , 57.24 and  101.46 , 55.347 ppm in grain was significant of recommended without inoculation . The interaction between dual inoculation with 42 Kg P.ha-1recommended dose exhibited the highest values of chemical fertilizer using efficiency  19.45 Kg grain for each one kilogram chemical fertilizer added.

Effect of Spraying Aizomen, Sunflower Leaves Extract and Cutting on Growth and Content of Some Phytoconstituents on Leaves and Seeds of Rocket

Maher H.S. Al-Mohammad; Ali H.J Al-Kikhani

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 542-552

This field experiment was conducted during the growing season of 2016/2017 to study the effect of spraying Aizomen, Sunflower extracts, Cutting and their combination treatments on growth parameters and some phytoconstituents compounds of Rocket Eruca sativa Mill., The treatments were distributed on Randomized Completely Block Design in three replicates, means were compared according to the Least Significant Difference test at probability level of 0.05 and t-test for comparing between cutting. The results show the sprayed 1.5 ml.L-1 Aizomen + 2% Extract gave the highest means on growth parameters (leaves number, fresh and dry weight and leaves productivity) at 1st and 2st cut and seeds productivity, at the same time it was increased the content of leaves and seeds of total alkaloids. While the treat 1.5 ml.L-1 Aizomen + 4% Extract was gave significant difference on concentrations of some phytoconstituents compounds Phenols, Flavonoids Tannins and Saponins compounds which amounted on leaves to 11.95, 3.38, 1.52 and 0.72 at 1st cut, 15.91, 4.18, 1.66 and 0.79 at 2st cut and on seeds reached 41.68, 11.35, 4.88 and 2.28 mg.g-1D.W respectively.

Response of chamomile to spraying with heparin solution in growth , yield and oil content

Sala Basim Ismael Mustafa; Adil Usif Nasserallah

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 526-541

The experiment was conducted during the winter farming season 2010 – 2011  in the field of experiments of the Department of Field Crops – College of Agriculture l University of Baghdad to determine the response of Chamomile common (Iraqi) to study spraying effect of Heparin solution at a concentration (0 , 2.5 , 5) ml. L-1 on growth , yield , and volatile oil content an experiment were arranged according to the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates using 9 treatments , the experimental results of this  experiment showed that : treating plants with H2 caused significant effects on all characters studied : number of total branches (57.60) branches . plant-1 , number of flower branches (45.36) branches. plant-1 ,number of leaves (166.50) leaf. plant-1 , leaf area (76.56) cm2. plant-1, Chlorophyll content (78.36) mg. g-1. Leaf tissue , the inflorescence stalk length (77.16) cm, the time to the appearance of flower buds (95.76) day , the time to the appearance of flowering (112.43) day , number of inflorescence (169.93) flower. plant-1 , percentage of fruit – set (92.80)% , inflorescence diameter (6.33) cm , The fresh weight of the inflorescence (1758.23) kg.ha-1 , the dry weight of the inflorescence (721.57) kg.ha-1 , flowers oil content (1.50)% , yield of oil (26.50) L. ha-1 , Specific gravity (0.955) , oil density (0.946) mg. microletter, refractive index (1.490) degree. High – performance Liquid Chromatography analysis showed that treating plants with H2 , gave greater values of all 7 volatile compounds fractionated Chamomile oil.

Study population density of the Green peach, Myzus persicae Sulz. in Nineveh

Shatha H. A. Abbasi; Nabil A. Qasim; Juhina Adrees Ali

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 553-562

This experiment was carried out in one of the fields of the Faculty of Agriculture   and Forestry / University of Mosul and one of the private fields in the site of the dome during the growing season 2006, it was demonstrated from the results obtained according to the randomly sampling program in the two study locations in. The College and Al-Qubba, the  insect was firstly appeared in the two locations at the beginning of September 2006 and then gradually increased to reach an Autumn peak of 472 insect in the College area, then  the predator Coccinella sepetumpunctataL. and Aphidius transcaspicus Tele. appeared in the middle of October. The number of pest was increased estimated at the spring peak in the middle of March, and then disappeared due to the increasing number of predators and parasitoids in July. The pest appeared again in the 3rd week of November with an average 644 insect at the autumn peak in Al-Qubba. The population of the pest increased again estimated at the spring peak with an average of 520 insect in the middle of March with their natural enemies, so that the population pest was decreased and gradually disappeared in the end of July.

Study Study The Effect of Lambing Type and Ewes Age in Percentage of Total Solid and Total Milk Yield For Arrabi Sheep Milk

Ahmed J. AL-yasery; Hadi Awad Albrkat; Ali Abdullah AL-Saadon; Basim F. Shaker

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 563-573

This study was carried out in animal filed in agricultural experiments and research station in Agriculture college / Al-Muthanna University from 10/11/2016  to 10/2/2017  to investigate the effect of lambing type (single and twins birth) and ewes mothers age in percentage of total solid (fatty and non-fatty) and total milk yield of Arrabi sheep milk , in study used 30 Arrabi gimmers newly lambed with its single and twins lambs at ages 1.5 , 2 and 3 years placed in typical yards in hygienic conditions and submitted to supportive vaccination and therapeutic program to ensure the safety and not presence any diseases , the milk samples were taken since the first week after lambing until 10 weeks and recorded the total milk yield and composition weekly during experiment period . the results showed presence  the significantly difference at     (P≤  0.05) between the studied values and the ratio of fat in milk which 8.89 at first week to 6.17at tenth week in single , while these values was 8.14at first week to 6.04at tenth week to twins , then ratio of milk fat elevated in single compare with twins , then the ratio of solid materials in milk was 13,90 to 14,87 in single and 30,13 to 16 in twins and also in total yields of milk each week from the first to tenth weeks . the result showed presence of significant correlation between animals , in conclusion , the lambing type and the ewes age that effected on the percentage of fat , non-fatty solid materials ratio and total yield of milk each week in the studied animals (Arrabi sheep) .
 

Effect of macnetic water and urea spray on yield of two lettuce cultivars (regina dei ghiacci and great lakes 118) in nft culture system.

Abdullah M. S. AL-Dabbagh; Zuhair A. Dawod

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 574-585

This research was conducted in unheated plastic house at Horticulture and Landscape Design Department, College of Agriculture & Forestry, Mosul University, during the growing season 2012-2013. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of magnetic water and urea spray on the yield of two lettuce cultivars in NFT culture system, transplants of two lettuce varieties (Regina dei ghiacci and Great Lakes 118) were continuously treated by three intensities of magnetic water (0 ,750 and 1500 gauss) during the experiment period and two foliar sprays of pure urea at three concentrators (0, 0.125 and 0.250 %) were applid.
 
Asplit-split plot system within a randomize complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates was used to carry out this experiment. Results data could be summarized as follows the Regina dei ghiacci variety has been significantly superior in the percentage protein .
 
with Great Lakes 118 variety. while the Great Lakes 118 variety was significantly  superior  in percentage of the percentage leaf chlorophyll content. All urea treatments  caused a significant increase all lettuce parameters as compared with control treatment.
 
Using magnetic water at 750 gauss intensities caused a significant increasment in most yield parameters as compared with control treatment. Mean while Generally, the interaction treatments caused extra effect on vegetative characteristics as compared with the effect of each single factor.

Priliminary study on die back of thuja trees

Huda Hazim Wafi AL-Taae; Ali Kareem Al-Taae

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 586-594

Isolation results from infected Thuja trees showed the existence ofPestalotiopsis funereal, Phoma herbarum ,.  and  Nigrospora  oryzae . ,this is the first record on the Cedar in Iraq The pathogenicity test result showed the ability of the fungi to cause yellowing and browning plant leaves starting from crown area to plant tip and causing plant death after 3 months from inoculation time .     Cedar wilting branches test showed total wilting after treatment with Phoma herbarum culture filtrate as compared toPestalotiopsis sp. and Nigrospora oryzae culture filtrate of three fungi had increased water loss in Cedar branches. The amount of water loss was significantly correlated with culture filtrate concentration and period of treatment.
 

Evaluation of Pseudomonas fluorescens , beltanol and some Resistances Inducers for control of Melon Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis

Yaser N. Alhamiri; Raja Gh. Abdulmohsen; Ola H. jaefar; Ali A. Khdem

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 595-610

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Pseudomonas fluorescens and some of the Inducers agents  in the control of fusarium wilt disease on melon plants caused by   Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis. The study also tested the pathogenicity of pathogenic fungi isolates and compared the efficacy of bacteria and induction agents using  Beltanol agents to control this disease. The results of the Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis test showed that FOM8 isolates were the most isolated  using the seeds of the cabbage. The rate of seed germination rate was reduced to 0.00% compared to the control treatment with a germination rate of 100%. Pure isolation of Pseudomonas fluorescens was obtained. The test of the antibiotic susceptibility of these bacteria showed that it has a high resistance against pathogenic fungi. Pseudomonas fluorescens inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis on the PSA by 92%. While the results of the antibiotic test EM1 and  herbal extraction Ascophyllum nodosum against the isolation of fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Melonis in the PSA has achieved an inhibition rate of 88% and 82%, respectively. When Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.melonis was performed under the field conditions, Results also showed that Pseudomonas fluorescens and induction factors reduced the severity of the disease to 6% compared to the treatment of pathogenic fungi only, which reached 44% severity, and showed a significant increase in the rate of soft weight and total length The length of the plant was 45.3 cm after 45 days compared to the control treatment (pathogen only) which was 18.6 while the soft weight of the vegetative and root group was 12.8 g compared with the treatment of the pathogen only, which amounted to 5.3 g.

Effect of physical diet form on productive performance of grower quail

Yaser Ghanim Salih Kesab

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 611-632

The aims of this research to evaluate effect of physical diet form : T1(Mash), T2(Pellet) and T3(Crumble) on nutrition of grower quail and their impact on some productive, carcass, blood serum characteristics and economic efficiency. 216 grower Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) desert color unsexed divided into 3 treatments, in each one 6 replication with 12 birds, the research start from 2 weeks old with one stage(grower) to end of 6weeks old.
 
The results showed significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) on final body weight, total weight gain, total feed consumption, total feed conversion ratio(g feed : g weight gain ) (g feed : g carcass ), total water consumption, total water conversion ratio (ml : g weight gain ), preslaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage without edible giblets, breast percentage, gizzard percentage, breast pace tenderness and juiciness, thigh pace juiciness, total protein and albumen on blood serum. No significant effect in all other characteristics in the study. The best net return (Iraqi Dinar / Kg live weight) (Iraqi Dinar / Kg carcass weight)  for T3 then T2 and last T1

Effect of replacement different levels of flaxseed meal substitute soybean meal on some productive performance in broiler: 1-Untreated flaxseed meal.

Yaser Ghanim Salih Kesab; Mohammad Muhmood AL-Shuraby

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 633-652

The aims of this study to know effect of replacement different levels of flaxseed meal that is 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% substitute soybean meal on some productive performance, carcass, blood economical characteristics  in broiler. A total of 80 one day old  unsexed commercial broiler chicks ( Hubbard Classic) divided in randomly five treatments, in each one 16 birds kept in individual cages. This study was expand in to two periods : starter ( 1–21 ) days and grower (22-42) days. Mash diet and water were ad-libitum. The study was carried out at poultry farm in animal production department  /college of agriculture and forestry / Mosul university.   
 
The results showed  significant effect (p≤ 0.05) in live body weight, total weight gain, growth rate, feed conversion ratio (g feed : g weight gain) and (g feed : g carcass), water conversion ratio (mL water : g weight gain), and (mL water : g carcass), digestibility coefficient of crude protein and crude fiber, carcass weight, dressing percent, percent of  thighs, wings, neck, liver, abdominal fat and pancreas. As well as on breast tenderness and juiciness, thighs tenderness, juiciness and  accepility, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, HDL, LDL and vLDL Cholesterol, AST, ALT finally in uric acid.
 
No significant effect in all other characteristics in the study. The best net return(Iraqi Dinar / Kg weight gain) for T5, T4, T3, T2 and T1 respectively.

Evaluation Transmission viruses Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) by Soil on Nineveha Governorate / Iraq

Raghad Naif Mheedi; Nabil Aziz Kassem Aziz Kassem

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 653-668

The aim of This study was to evolution transmission of viral isolates brought from tomato fields in Ninewah governorate in 2011 season showed the symptoms of the severe mosaic with green and yellow colors, the deformation of tomato leaves and moderate mosaic symptoms with slight yellowing the veins accompanied by mottle tomato plant, the Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), isolates were diagnosed using DAS-ELISA (Double antibody sandwich - ELISA) .

The effect of foliar spraying with NPK on the growth of Olive transplants Olea europea L. variety Khudhery.

Sabbah ِAbd Flayyh AlRubayee; Alaa Abbas AlAsady; Harith Mahmoud Aziz

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 669-675

The research was conducted in Karbala University’s farm for season 2006-2007, included five treatments (control, twice spraying with NPK, three spraying with NPK, four spraying with NPK and five spraying with NPK). The research designed as factorial in R.C.B.D. and L.S.D. compared with 0.05 probability. The results showed the treatment S3 was the best in (Plant height, Plant diameter and chlorophyll) while the treatment S4 was the best than other treatments with (branch length, branch number, leaf area, % dry matter, % CHO in leaves, % and % K). The % P had no significant effect on all treatments.

Effect of the magnetic field on the interaction with two the types of fungus Fusarium sp.and The fungus resistance biogenic Trichoderma harzianum In the analysis of some chemical pesticides

Salwan A. Zahra Jabbar Allwbaw; Adeeb Kitab Abid Zaid Alshafiee

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 676-689

Sought This study to analyze the residuse of pesticides the use of the magnetic field and interaction with  two the types of fungus Fusariumsp.and The fungus resistance biogenic Trichoderma harzianum where s  is the use of five types of pesticides chemical an RIDOMIL GOLD Fengicides , Esther ASTER Insecticide and NOMOLT  and two CHEVALIER and Palace PAALAS Herbicides, by exposing to intensive magnetic field and at different times 24and  48 and 72 and 144 and 720h. the biological analysis was done interaction with  two the types of fungus Fusarium sp.and The fungus resistance biogenic Trichoderma harzianum.shows that the chemical pesticides ASTER and NOMOLT analysis by the magnetic field after exposure for a period of 24,48and 144 h the pesticide ASTER affect the fungi Fusarium oxysporum and the pesticide NOMOLT affect the fungi Fusariumgraminearum terms of (17.12,36.36)%respectively . The chemical pesticides CHEVALIER and PAALAS Do not degrade pesticides magnetic field only by a simple and affect the chemical pesticides CHEVALIER and PAALAS on the fungus resistance biogenic Trichoderma harzianum terms of (92.92,80.83)% respectively ,and for pesticidesRIDOMIL GOLD analysis  after the magnetic field for a period of 24 hours and affect the fungi Fusarium graminearumterms of (65.38)%

Effect of sowing dates on growth, forage and grain yield of three oats cultivars (Avena sativa L)

Waleed K. S. Al-Juheishy; Salim A. Y. Gazal

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 697-709

 This study was conducted in winter season of 2012 -2013 at two locations, Fields of College of Agriculture and Forestry-Mosul University and in Al-Hamidat/village of Thaljah (20 km) west of Mosul city. The study aimed to investigate the effect of sowing dates (1 , 15 , 30 November) on the growth, forage and grain yield of three varieties from Oat (ICARDA Tall, Kangaroo, and ICARDA Short) using randomized complete block design (split plot system) with three replications. The results showed the first sowing date (1/11) in most growth characteristics, dry forage yield and grain yield components, The highest dry yield at Mosul location 6.15 ton .ha-1 and at 5.57 ton.ha-1 at Thaljah location, And the highest grain yield in the Mosul location 1.86 ton.ha-1 and at Thaljah location 1.62 ton .ha-1. ICARDA Tall was superior in dry forage at both locations and gave 6.52 ton .ha-1 at Mosul location   and 6.05 ton.ha-1 at Thaljah location. While Kangaroo topped the grain yield with 2.05 ton.ha-1 location Mosul and 2.14 ton.ha-1 at location Thaljah.  The highest grain yield interaction between variety kangaroo with sowing dates of the (1/11) at bath at location in Mosul location2.16 ton.ha-1 and 2.25 ton.ha-1 at location Thaljah While the interaction between the variety ICARDA Tall   and the sowing dates (1/11) gave the highest dry forage yield at Mosul location 7.56 ton.ha-1 and 6.43ton.ha-1 at Thaljah location

Effect of GnRH treatment at embryo transfer on pregnancy rate and early embryonic death of Holstein-Friesian cows

Talal Anwer Abdulkareem; Sajeda Mahdi Eidan; Faris Feisal Ibrahim; Hameed Abdlah Ali; Riyadh George Dano; Abbas Department of Artificial Insemination, Directorate of Animal Resource, Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq.; Omar Adel Mohammed

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 690-696

This study was undertaken to explore the influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone; GnRH treatment at embryo transfer on pregnancy rate and early embryonic mortalities of Holstein-Friesian cows. This study was executed at the Department of Artificial insemination, Directorate of Animal Resource, Ministry of Agriculture using 58 Holstein-Friesian cows prepared for embryo transfer. The cows were randomly distributed into two groups following their normal estrus cycle. The first group (n=21) was left without any treatment and regarded as control (T1), while the second group (n=2) was injected with GnRH (10 µg per cow; T2) at the 7th day of their normal estrus cycle, and the estrus was monitored for 6 sequential cycles. The pregnancy was checked at days 45, 60 and 120 post-mating (PM) using rectal palpation. Pregnancy and calving rates as well as early embryonic mortality percentage were estimated for all cows. The bulls that born for the embryo transfer (n=5) was used for artificially inseminated of cows following evaluation of their semen. Greater pregnancy rates were observed for the GnRH-treated cows (T2) at days 45 (43. 24%) and 120 (37.84%) PM as compared with T1 group (33.33 and 28.57% respectively). Concomitantly, the early embryonic mortality percentage was reduced in T2 groups (56.76%) in comparison with the T1 group (66.76%) at day 45 PM. Greater (P≤ 0.05) calving rate was recorded for T2 group (37.84%) as compared with T1 group (28.57%). Using of GnRH treatment at embryo transfer has positive economic return resulting from higher pregnancy and calving rates as well as reducing early embryonic mortality percentage. Four bulls from the T2 group were born versus one bull born from T1 group. These bulls was used currently for semen collection and cryopreservation at the Department of Artificial Insemination, and produced 158,016 and 39,504 semen straws respectively with net profit of US$ 701,227  for T2 group and US$147,228 for T1 group.

Effect of plant extraction (Hibiscus, black grain and Fenugreek) on growth and yield of bean (Viacia faba L.)

Falah Hasan Issa; Jaber Jassim Abo Tlasha; Huda Hussein Herby

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 710-716

This study was conducted at Experimental researches Unit " ALL – Bender location" Department of Plant Production during 2016-2017 growing season.   The experiment  included studying the effect the foliar application of Plant extraction  ( T1 control with distill water , T2 Fenugreek extraction 5g L-1  and T3 10g L-1 , T4 black grain extraction 5g L-1 and  T5 10g L-1 , T6 Hibscus extraction 5g L-1  and T7 10g L-1 treatment on    bean  Vicia faba L. cv. Local . Randomized Completely Block Design (R.C.B.D) were used with three replicates. The means were compared according to L.S.D test at the level 0.05.
 
    The results showed the superiority of Hibscus extraction (10 g/ L) in plant height , leaf area , fresh and dry weight of vegetative growth , flowers  setting % , number and weight of pods , fresh and dry weight of seeds per plant reached ( 43.58cm, 41.12Dcm2, 192.54g, 77.04g, 57.45%, 36.02pod, 534.43g, 280.78g and 104.08g) respectively,  5g.L-1 of  Hibiscus extraction treatment was significantly creased the  number of seeds reached130.32seeds.plant-1 .

Preparation of a nanolaminate of alginate and turmeric in LBL method and its use in prolonging shelf life of Monterey cheese

Shaymaa R. Khairi; Azhar J. Al- Mosowy

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 717-726

  This study was carried out to evaluate the preparation of five-layer nanolaminates that were introduced by Layer By Layer (LBL) technique by the use of two solutions, namely, the sodium alginate, and the other antimicrobial agent is the turmeric extract. The halo diameter was estimated on a petri dish containing the positive bacteria or negative gram bacteria were used to estimate the effectiveness of antimicrobial extracts. Results showed that 0.2% concentration of turmeric extract showed inhibitory activity against these microorganisms. The scanning electron microscope was used to detect the thickness of prepared nanolaminates. The thickness of the total alginate and turmeric nanolaminate was 167.72 nm , The Zeta Potential voltage of the alginate solution reached -28.49 mV at  pH = 7 and the turmeric extract was 29.45 mV, The WVP water permeability values ​​for the nanolayered PET film  without any addition to the charged PET (treatment 1) were 29.091 g.m2/24h) and for the nanolayered PET-charged for sodium alginate and turmeric extract (treatment 2) 43.636 g.m2/24h), OTR was obtained for the nanolayered with no addition of the charged PET (treatment 1), 14.78 ml / m2.day), and for the PET-charged, covered with sodium alginate and turmeric extract (treatment 2) 19.19 ml /m2.day).Three treatments were made of Monterey cheese, the first treatment was covered with the paraffin wax  as control M1, the second was covered with gelatin (M2) and the third was coated with a nanolayered film consisting of the sodium alginate and the turmeric extract (M3). The results showed a significant decrease in the moisture content and the correct acidity of the treatment M3 and evolution in the values ​​of ADV by the duration of maturation and the body of the turmeric extract in the nanolayered was determined from the microbiological growth of the treatment (M3), making it superior in the sensory characteristics of the comparison treatments.

Effect of splitting foliar application of GA3,Ck, extracts of hibiscus Subdariffa and Glycyrrhiza glabra l. on seed field emergence of sorghum

Saddam Hakeem Cheyed; Wafaa Mohammad Gawad

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 727-739

       A field experiment was carried out at the Seed Technology Laboratory and Field of Experiments of the Department of Field Crop Sciences, College of Agriculture University of Baghdad, during 2016 spring season.  The objective use to investigate the  in order to determine the effect of  gibberellin (GA3), kinetin (CK) and the extracts of Hibiscus subdariffa (Hs), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Gg) and their splitting on seed field emergence of sorghum seeds. Results showed that Hs gave the highest values of speed emergence and index seedling vigour. Gg gave the lowest values of date to last emergence and date to complete emergence. The results also showed a significant interaction between Both treatment study  in the most studied characters, Gg with splitting half of the concentration gave the highest values of date to last emergence, date to complete emergence, germination of Energy and number of leaves. However, Hs with splitting half of the concentration gave the highest values of seed emergence and seedling power.

Effect of the organic fertilizer Peat wheat and extracted it in growth and yield of eggplant

Ahmed S.M. AL- Dhami; Khalid A. M. Al-lamy

Journal of Kerbala for Agricultural Sciences, 2018, Volume 5, Issue 5, Pages 740-752

 A field experment was carried out to study effect of organic manure (wheat residues) and the filtrate extracted from it and the interactionbetween them in the growth and the yield plant eggplant in the field experiment of the spring 2014 season in one of the farms Dujailah area in Wasit province. Add compost in the soil four levels) 0، 10، 20 and 30 tons. ha-1(which weredesignate O1, O2, O3 and O4 respectively, also add Abstract Organic spraying method at rates three) 0, 2 and 4 ml. Liter-1(which was designat S1, S2 and S3 respectively. The experiment was adopted as factorial at Randomized  Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replicates. The differences between means were tested by Duncan's  Multiples Range Test ( D.M.R.T) at  probability of 0.05.
 
     The results showed that the addition of compost and spraying the Organic extract has affected significantly in the parameters  vegetative growth of plant height, number of branches of the main plant, leaf area, content leavesof chlorophyll, yield parameters(fruit weight, number of fruits. Plant -1, one plant yield, and total yield) compared with treatment without added.Increased influence the greater the amount of fertilizer added. The overlapping factors of the study significantly affected, as it gave the treatment of interactionO3S2 (Add compost level of 30 tons.ha-1+extract Organic concentration of 4 ml. Liter -1), the highest values ​​for all parameters  the study has been amounted (94.41 cm plant -1,8.11 branch. plant -1, 447.5 dcm2. plant -1,64.88 SPAD units ,197.3 g. fruit -1,8.63 fruit. plant -1 and 1.703 kg. plant -1 and 36.61 tons. ha-1) respectively, compared to the treatment ofO0 S0 (without fertilization), which gave the lowest rate for those parameters .